Thursday, November 1, 2007

Interview Questions for Dot net and SQL Server

Basic .NET and ASP.NET interview questions
Explain the .NET architecture.
How many languages .NET is supporting now? - When .NET was introduced it came with several languages. VB.NET, C#, COBOL and Perl, etc. The site DotNetLanguages.Net says 44 languages are supported. (Check in Page -12)

How is .NET able to support multiple languages? - a language should comply with the Common Language Runtime standard to become a .NET language. In .NET, code is compiled to Microsoft Intermediate Language (MSIL for short). This is called as Managed Code. This Managed code is run in .NET environment. So after compilation to this IL the language is not a barrier. A code can call or use a function written in another language.

How ASP .NET different from ASP? - Scripting is separated from the HTML, Code is compiled as a DLL, these DLLs can be executed on the server.

Resource Files: How to use the resource files, how to know which language to use?
What is smart navigation? - The cursor position is maintained when the page gets refreshed due to the server side validation and the page gets refreshed.

What is view state? - The web is stateless. But in ASP.NET, the state of a page is maintained in the in the page itself automatically. How? The values are encrypted and saved in hidden controls. this is done automatically by the ASP.NET. This can be switched off / on for a single control
Explain the life cycle of an ASP .NET page.

How do you validate the controls in an ASP .NET page? - Using special validation controls that are meant for this. We have Range Validator, Email Validator.
Can the validation be done in the server side? Or this can be done only in the Client side? - Client side is done by default. Server side validation is also possible. We can switch off the client side and server side can be done.

How to manage pagination in a page? - Using pagination option in DataGrid control. We have to set the number of records for a page, then it takes care of pagination by itself.
What is ADO .NET and what is difference between ADO and ADO.NET? - ADO.NET is stateless mechanism. I can treat the ADO.Net as a separate in-memory database where in I can use relationships between the tables and select insert and updates to the database. I can update the actual database as a batch.


Interview Questions - C#
What’s the implicit name of the parameter that gets passed into the class’ set method?
Value, and its datatype depends on whatever variable we’re changing.
How do you inherit from a class in C#? Place a colon and then the name of the base class. Notice that it’s double colon in C++.

Does C# support multiple inheritance? No, use interfaces instead.
When you inherit a protected class-level variable, who is it available to? Classes in the same namespace.

Are private class-level variables inherited? Yes, but they are not accessible, so looking at it you can honestly say that they are not inherited. But they are.
Describe the accessibility modifier protected internal. It’s available to derived classes and classes within the same Assembly (and naturally from the base class it’s declared in).
C# provides a default constructor for me. I write a constructor that takes a string as a parameter, but want to keep the no parameter one.

How many constructors should I write? Two. Once you write at least one constructor, C# cancels the freebie constructor, and now you have to write one yourself, even if there’s no implementation in it.

What’s the top .NET class that everything is derived from? System.Object.

How’s method overriding different from overloading? When overriding, you change the method behavior for a derived class. Overloading simply involves having a method with the same name within the class.
What does the keyword virtual mean in the method definition? The method can be over-ridden.
Can you declare the override method static while the original method is non-static? No, you can’t, the signature of the virtual method must remain the same, only the keyword virtual is changed to keyword override.


Can you override private virtual methods? No, moreover, you cannot access private methods in inherited classes, have to be protected in the base class to allow any sort of access.
Can you prevent your class from being inherited and becoming a base class for some other classes? Yes, that’s what keyword sealed in the class definition is for. The developer trying to derive from your class will get a message: cannot inherit from Sealed class WhateverBaseClassName. It’s the same concept as final class in Java.

Can you allow class to be inherited, but prevent the method from being over-ridden? Yes, just leave the class public and make the method sealed.
What’s an abstract class? A class that cannot be instantiated. A concept in C++ known as pure virtual method. A class that must be inherited and have the methods over-ridden. Essentially, it’s a blueprint for a class without any implementation.

When do you absolutely have to declare a class as abstract (as opposed to free-willed educated choice or decision based on UML diagram)? When at least one of the methods in the class is abstract. When the class itself is inherited from an abstract class, but not all base abstract methods have been over-ridden.
What’s an interface class? It’s an abstract class with public abstract methods all of which must be implemented in the inherited classes.

Why can’t you specify the accessibility modifier for methods inside the interface? They all must be public. Therefore, to prevent you from getting the false impression that you have any freedom of choice, you are not allowed to specify any accessibility, it’s public by default.
Can you inherit multiple interfaces?
Yes, why not.
And if they have conflicting method names? It’s up to you to implement the method inside your own class, so implementation is left entirely up to you. This might cause a problem on a higher-level scale if similarly named methods from different interfaces expect different data, but as far as compiler cares you’re okay.

What’s the difference between an interface and abstract class? In the interface all methods must be abstract; in the abstract class some methods can be concrete. In the interface no accessibility modifiers are allowed, which is ok in abstract classes.

How can you overload a method? Different parameter data types, different number of parameters, different order of parameters.


If a base class has a bunch of overloaded constructors, and an inherited class has another bunch of overloaded constructors, can you enforce a call from an inherited constructor to an arbitrary base constructor? Yes, just place a colon, and then keyword base (parameter list to invoke the appropriate constructor) in the overloaded constructor definition inside the inherited class.

What’s the difference between System.String and System.StringBuilder classes? System.String is immutable; System.StringBuilder was designed with the purpose of having a mutable string where a variety of operations can be performed.

What’s the advantage of using System.Text.StringBuilder over System.String? StringBuilder is more efficient in the cases, where a lot of manipulation is done to the text. Strings are immutable, so each time it’s being operated on, a new instance is created.

Can you store multiple data types in System.Array? No.

What’s the difference between the System.Array.CopyTo() and System.Array.Clone()? The first one performs a deep copy of the array, the second one is shallow.

How can you sort the elements of the array in descending order? By calling Sort() and then Reverse() methods.
What’s the .NET datatype that allows the retrieval of data by a unique key? HashTable.

What’s class SortedList underneath? A sorted HashTable.

Will finally block get executed if the exception had not occurred? Yes.

What’s the C# equivalent of C++ catch (…), which was a catch-all statement for any possible exception? A catch block that catches the exception of type System.Exception. You can also omit the parameter data type in this case and just write catch {}.

Can multiple catch blocks be executed? No, once the proper catch code fires off, the control is transferred to the finally block (if there are any), and then whatever follows the finally block.

Why is it a bad idea to throw your own exceptions? Well, if at that point you know that an error has occurred, then why not write the proper code to handle that error instead of passing a new Exception object to the catch block? Throwing your own exceptions signifies some design flaws in the project.

What’s a delegate? A delegate object encapsulates a reference to a method. In C++ they were referred to as function pointers.

What’s a multicast delegate? It’s a delegate that points to and eventually fires off several methods.
How’s the DLL Hell problem solved in .NET? Assembly versioning allows the application to specify not only the library it needs to run (which was available under Win32), but also the version of the assembly.

What are the ways to deploy an assembly? An MSI installer, a CAB archive, and XCOPY command.

What’s a satellite assembly? When you write a multilingual or multi-cultural application in .NET, and want to distribute the core application separately from the localized modules, the localized assemblies that modify the core application are called satellite assemblies.

What namespaces are necessary to create a localized application? System.Globalization, System.Resources.
What’s the difference between // comments, /* */ comments and /// comments? Single-line, multi-line and XML documentation comments.
How do you generate documentation from the C# file commented properly with a command-line compiler? Compile it with a /doc switch.

What’s the difference between and XML documentation tag? Single line code example and multiple-line code example.
Is XML case-sensitive? Yes, so and are different elements.
What debugging tools come with the .NET SDK? CorDBG – command-line debugger, and DbgCLR – graphic debugger. Visual Studio .NET uses the DbgCLR. To use CorDbg, you must compile the original C# file using the /debug switch.

What does the This window show in the debugger? It points to the object that’s pointed to by this reference. Object’s instance data is shown.

What does assert() do? In debug compilation, assert takes in a Boolean condition as a parameter, and shows the error dialog if the condition is false. The program proceeds without any interruption if the condition is true.


What’s the difference between the Debug class and Trace class? Documentation looks the same. Use Debug class for debug builds, use Trace class for both debug and release builds.

Why are there five tracing levels in System.Diagnostics.TraceSwitcher? The tracing dumps can be quite verbose and for some applications that are constantly running you run the risk of overloading the machine and the hard drive there. Five levels range from None to Verbose, allowing to fine-tune the tracing activities.
Where is the output of TextWriterTraceListener redirected? To the Console or a text file depending on the parameter passed to the constructor.

How do you debug an ASP.NET Web application? Attach the aspnet_wp.exe process to the DbgClr debugger.

What are three test cases you should go through in unit testing? Positive test cases (correct data, correct output), negative test cases (broken or missing data, proper handling), exception test cases (exceptions are thrown and caught properly).

Can you change the value of a variable while debugging a C# application? Yes, if you are debugging via Visual Studio.NET, just go to Immediate window.

Explain the three services model (three-tier application). Presentation (UI), business (logic and underlying code) and data (from storage or other sources).

What are advantages and disadvantages of Microsoft-provided data provider classes in ADO.NET? SQLServer.NET data provider is high-speed and robust, but requires SQL Server license purchased from Microsoft. OLE-DB.NET is universal for accessing other sources, like Oracle, DB2, Microsoft Access and Informix, but it’s a .NET layer on top of OLE layer, so not the fastest thing in the world. ODBC.NET is a deprecated layer provided for backward compatibility to ODBC engines.

What’s the role of the DataReader class in ADO.NET connections? It returns a read-only dataset from the data source when the command is executed.

What is the wildcard character in SQL? Let’s say you want to query database with LIKE for all employees whose name starts with La. The wildcard character is %, the proper query with LIKE would involve ‘La%’.

Explain ACID rule of thumb for transactions. Transaction must be Atomic (it is one unit of work and does not dependent on previous and following transactions), Consistent (data is either committed or roll back, no “in-between” case where something has been updated and something hasn’t), Isolated (no transaction sees the intermediate results of the current transaction), Durable (the values persist if the data had been committed even if the system crashes right after).

What connections does Microsoft SQL Server support? Windows Authentication (via Active Directory) and SQL Server authentication (via Microsoft SQL Server username and passwords).

Which one is trusted and which one is untrusted? Windows Authentication is trusted because the username and password are checked with the Active Directory, the SQL Server authentication is untrusted, since SQL Server is the only verifier participating in the transaction.

Why would you use untrusted verificaion? Web Services might use it, as well as non-Windows applications.
What does the parameter Initial Catalog define inside Connection String? The database name to connect to.

What’s the data provider name to connect to Access database? Microsoft.Access.

What does Dispose method do with the connection object? Deletes it from the memory.
What is a pre-requisite for connection pooling? Multiple processes must agree that they will share the same connection, where every parameter is the same, including the security settings.

General Questions
1. Does C# support multiple-inheritance?
No.


2. Who is a protected class-level variable available to? It is available to any sub-class (a class inheriting this class).


3. Are private class-level variables inherited? Yes, but they are not accessible. Although they are not visible or accessible via the class interface, they are inherited.

4. Describe the accessibility modifier “protected internal”. It is available to classes that are within the same assembly and derived from the specified base class.

5. What’s the top .NET class that everything is derived from? System.Object.


6. What does the term immutable mean?The data value may not be changed. Note: The variable value may be changed, but the original immutable data value was discarded and a new data value was created in memory.

7. What’s the difference between System.String and System.Text.StringBuilder classes?

System.String is immutable. System.StringBuilder was designed with the purpose of having a mutable string where a variety of operations can be performed.

8. What’s the advantage of using System.Text.StringBuilder over System.String?StringBuilder is more efficient in cases where there is a large amount of string manipulation. Strings are immutable, so each time a string is changed, a new instance in memory is created.
9. Can you store multiple data types in System.Array?No.

10. What’s the difference between the System.Array.CopyTo() and System.Array.Clone()?

The Clone() method returns a new array (a shallow copy) object containing all the elements in the original array. The CopyTo() method copies the elements into another existing array. Both perform a shallow copy. A shallow copy means the contents (each array element) contains references to the same object as the elements in the original array. A deep copy (which neither of these methods performs) would create a new instance of each element's object, resulting in a different, yet identacle object.


11. How can you sort the elements of the array in descending order?By calling Sort() and then Reverse() methods.

12. What’s the .NET collection class that allows an element to be accessed using a unique key?HashTable.

13. What class is underneath the SortedList class?A sorted HashTable.

14. Will the finally block get executed if an exception has not occurred?­Yes.
15. What’s the C# syntax to catch any possible exception?A catch block that catches the exception of type System.Exception. You can also omit the parameter data type in this case and just write catch {}.

16. Can multiple catch blocks be executed for a single try statement?No. Once the proper catch block processed, control is transferred to the finally block (if there are any).

17. Explain the three services model commonly know as a three-tier application.Presentation (UI), Business (logic and underlying code) and Data (from storage or other sources).

Class Questions
1. What is the syntax to inherit from a class in C#?
Place a colon and then the name of the base class.Example: class MyNewClass : MyBaseClass


2. Can you prevent your class from being inherited by another class? Yes. The keyword “sealed” will prevent the class from being inherited.

3. Can you allow a class to be inherited, but prevent the method from being over-ridden?Yes. Just leave the class public and make the method sealed.

4. What’s an abstract class?A class that cannot be instantiated. An abstract class is a class that must be inherited and have the methods overridden. An abstract class is essentially a blueprint for a class without any implementation.

5. When do you absolutely have to declare a class as abstract?1. When the class itself is inherited from an abstract class, but not all base abstract methods have been overridden. 2. When at least one of the methods in the class is abstract.

6. What is an interface class?Interfaces, like classes, define a set of properties, methods, and events. But unlike classes, interfaces do not provide implementation. They are implemented by classes, and defined as separate entities from classes.

7. Why can’t you specify the accessibility modifier for methods inside the interface?They all must be public, and are therefore public by default.

8. Can you inherit multiple interfaces?Yes. .NET does support multiple interfaces.

9. What happens if you inherit multiple interfaces and they have conflicting method names?It’s up to you to implement the method inside your own class, so implementation is left entirely up to you. This might cause a problem on a higher-level scale if similarly named methods from different interfaces expect different data, but as far as compiler cares you’re okay. To Do: Investigate

10. What’s the difference between an interface and abstract class?In an interface class, all methods are abstract - there is no implementation. In an abstract class some methods can be concrete. In an interface class, no accessibility modifiers are allowed. An abstract class may have accessibility modifiers.

11. What is the difference between a Struct and a Class?Structs are value-type variables and are thus saved on the stack, additional overhead but faster retrieval. Another difference is that structs cannot inherit.

Method and Property Questions
1. What’s the implicit name of the parameter that gets passed into the set method/property of a class?
Value. The data type of the value parameter is defined by whatever data type the property is declared as.

2. What does the keyword “virtual” declare for a method or property? The method or property can be overridden.

3. How is method overriding different from method overloading? When overriding a method, you change the behavior of the method for the derived class. Overloading a method simply involves having another method with the same name within the class.

4. Can you declare an override method to be static if the original method is not static? No. The signature of the virtual method must remain the same. (Note: Only the keyword virtual is changed to keyword override)

5. What are the different ways a method can be overloaded? Different parameter data types, different number of parameters, different order of parameters.

6. If a base class has a number of overloaded constructors, and an inheriting class has a number of overloaded constructors; can you enforce a call from an inherited constructor to a specific base constructor?Yes, just place a colon, and then keyword base (parameter list to invoke the appropriate constructor) in the overloaded constructor definition inside the inherited class.

Events and Delegates

1. What’s a delegate? A delegate object encapsulates a reference to a method.
2. What’s a multicast delegate? A delegate that has multiple handlers assigned to it. Each assigned handler (method) is called.
XML Documentation Questions
1. Is XML case-sensitive? Yes.
2. What’s the difference between // comments, /* */ comments and /// comments? Single-line comments, multi-line comments, and XML documentation comments.
3. How do you generate documentation from the C# file commented properly with a command-line compiler? Compile it with the /doc switch.
Debugging and Testing Questions
1. What debugging tools come with the .NET SDK?1. CorDBG – command-line debugger. To use CorDbg, you must compile the original C# file using the /debug switch. 2. DbgCLR – graphic debugger. Visual Studio .NET uses the DbgCLR.
2. What does assert() method do? In debug compilation, assert takes in a Boolean condition as a parameter, and shows the error dialog if the condition is false. The program proceeds without any interruption if the condition is true.
3. What’s the difference between the Debug class and Trace class? Documentation looks the same. Use Debug class for debug builds, use Trace class for both debug and release builds.
4. Why are there five tracing levels in System.Diagnostics.TraceSwitcher? The tracing dumps can be quite verbose. For applications that are constantly running you run the risk of overloading the machine and the hard drive. Five levels range from None to Verbose, allowing you to fine-tune the tracing activities.
5. Where is the output of TextWriterTraceListener redirected? To the Console or a text file depending on the parameter passed to the constructor.
6. How do you debug an ASP.NET Web application? Attach the aspnet_wp.exe process to the DbgClr debugger.
7. What are three test cases you should go through in unit testing? 1. Positive test cases (correct data, correct output).2. Negative test cases (broken or missing data, proper handling).3. Exception test cases (exceptions are thrown and caught properly).
8. Can you change the value of a variable while debugging a C# application? Yes. If you are debugging via Visual Studio.NET, just go to Immediate window.
ADO.NET and Database Questions
1. What is the role of the DataReader class in ADO.NET connections? It returns a read-only, forward-only rowset from the data source. A DataReader provides fast access when a forward-only sequential read is needed.
2. What are advantages and disadvantages of Microsoft-provided data provider classes in ADO.NET? SQLServer.NET data provider is high-speed and robust, but requires SQL Server license purchased from Microsoft. OLE-DB.NET is universal for accessing other sources, like Oracle, DB2, Microsoft Access and Informix. OLE-DB.NET is a .NET layer on top of the OLE layer, so it’s not as fastest and efficient as SqlServer.NET.
3. What is the wildcard character in SQL? Let’s say you want to query database with LIKE for all employees whose name starts with La. The wildcard character is %, the proper query with LIKE would involve ‘La%’.
4. Explain ACID rule of thumb for transactions.A transaction must be:1. Atomic - it is one unit of work and does not dependent on previous and following transactions.2. Consistent - data is either committed or roll back, no “in-between” case where something has been updated and something hasn’t.3. Isolated - no transaction sees the intermediate results of the current transaction).4. Durable - the values persist if the data had been committed even if the system crashes right after.
5. What connections does Microsoft SQL Server support? Windows Authentication (via Active Directory) and SQL Server authentication (via Microsoft SQL Server username and password).
6. Between Windows Authentication and SQL Server Authentication, which one is trusted and which one is untrusted? Windows Authentication is trusted because the username and password are checked with the Active Directory, the SQL Server authentication is untrusted, since SQL Server is the only verifier participating in the transaction.
7. What does the Initial Catalog parameter define in the connection string? The database name to connect to.
8. What does the Dispose method do with the connection object? Deletes it from the memory.To Do: answer better. The current answer is not entirely correct.
9. What is a pre-requisite for connection pooling? Multiple processes must agree that they will share the same connection, where every parameter is the same, including the security settings. The connection string must be identical.
Assembly Questions
1. How is the DLL Hell problem solved in .NET? Assembly versioning allows the application to specify not only the library it needs to run (which was available under Win32), but also the version of the assembly.
2. What are the ways to deploy an assembly? An MSI installer, a CAB archive, and XCOPY command.
3. What is a satellite assembly? When you write a multilingual or multi-cultural application in .NET, and want to distribute the core application separately from the localized modules, the localized assemblies that modify the core application are called satellite assemblies.
4. What namespaces are necessary to create a localized application? System.Globalization and System.Resources.
5. What is the smallest unit of execution in .NET?an Assembly.
6. When should you call the garbage collector in .NET?As a good rule, you should not call the garbage collector. However, you could call the garbage collector when you are done using a large object (or set of objects) to force the garbage collector to dispose of those very large objects from memory. However, this is usually not a good practice.
7. How do you convert a value-type to a reference-type?Use Boxing.
8. What happens in memory when you Box and Unbox a value-type?Boxing converts a value-type to a reference-type, thus storing the object on the heap. Unboxing converts a reference-type to a value-type, thus storing the value on the stack.
ASP.NET Interview Questions
This is a list of questions I have gathered and created over a period of time from my experience, many of which I felt where incomplete or simply wrong. I have finally taken the time to go through each question and correct them to the best of my ability. However, please feel free to post feedback to challenge, improve, or suggest new questions. I want to thank those of you that have contributed quality questions and corrections thus far.
There are some questions in this list that I do not consider to be good questions for an interview. However, they do exist on other lists available on the Internet so I felt compelled to keep them here for easy access.
1. Describe the role of inetinfo.exe, aspnet_isapi.dll andaspnet_wp.exe in the page loading process.inetinfo.exe is theMicrosoft IIS server running, handling ASP.NET requests among other things.When an ASP.NET request is received (usually a file with .aspx extension), the ISAPI filter aspnet_isapi.dll takes care of it by passing the request tothe actual worker process aspnet_wp.exe.
2. What’s the difference between Response.Write() andResponse.Output.Write()?Response.Output.Write() allows you to write formatted output.
3. What methods are fired during the page load?Init() - when the page is instantiatedLoad() - when the page is loaded into server memoryPreRender() - the brief moment before the page is displayed to the user as HTMLUnload() - when page finishes loading.
4. When during the page processing cycle is ViewState available?After the Init() and before the Page_Load(), or OnLoad() for a control.
5. What namespace does the Web page belong in the .NET Framework class hierarchy?System.Web.UI.Page
6. Where do you store the information about the user’s locale?System.Web.UI.Page.Culture
7. What’s the difference between Codebehind="MyCode.aspx.cs" andSrc="MyCode.aspx.cs"?CodeBehind is relevant to Visual Studio.NET only.
8. What’s a bubbled event?When you have a complex control, like DataGrid, writing an event processing routine for each object (cell, button, row, etc.) is quite tedious. The controls can bubble up their eventhandlers, allowing the main DataGrid event handler to take care of its constituents.
9. Suppose you want a certain ASP.NET function executed on MouseOver for a certain button. Where do you add an event handler?Add an OnMouseOver attribute to the button. Example: btnSubmit.Attributes.Add("onmouseover","someClientCodeHere();");
10. What data types do the RangeValidator control support?Integer, String, and Date.
11. Explain the differences between Server-side and Client-side code?Server-side code executes on the server. Client-side code executes in the client's browser.
12. What type of code (server or client) is found in a Code-Behind class?The answer is server-side code since code-behind is executed on the server. However, during the code-behind's execution on the server, it can render client-side code such as JavaScript to be processed in the clients browser. But just to be clear, code-behind executes on the server, thus making it server-side code.
13. Should user input data validation occur server-side or client-side? Why?All user input data validation should occur on the server at a minimum. Additionally, client-side validation can be performed where deemed appropriate and feasable to provide a richer, more responsive experience for the user.
14. What is the difference between Server.Transfer and Response.Redirect? Why would I choose one over the other?Server.Transfer transfers page processing from one page directly to the next page without making a round-trip back to the client's browser. This provides a faster response with a little less overhead on the server. Server.Transfer does not update the clients url history list or current url. Response.Redirect is used to redirect the user's browser to another page or site. This performas a trip back to the client where the client's browser is redirected to the new page. The user's browser history list is updated to reflect the new address.
15. Can you explain the difference between an ADO.NET Dataset and an ADO Recordset?Valid answers are:· A DataSet can represent an entire relational database in memory, complete with tables, relations, and views.· A DataSet is designed to work without any continuing connection to the original data source.· Data in a DataSet is bulk-loaded, rather than being loaded on demand.· There's no concept of cursor types in a DataSet.· DataSets have no current record pointer You can use For Each loops to move through the data.· You can store many edits in a DataSet, and write them to the original data source in a single operation.· Though the DataSet is universal, other objects in ADO.NET come in different versions for different data sources.
16. What is the Global.asax used for?The Global.asax (including the Global.asax.cs file) is used to implement application and session level events.
17. What are the Application_Start and Session_Start subroutines used for?This is where you can set the specific variables for the Application and Session objects.
18. Can you explain what inheritance is and an example of when you might use it?When you want to inherit (use the functionality of) another class. Example: With a base class named Employee, a Manager class could be derived from the Employee base class.
19. Whats an assembly?Assemblies are the building blocks of the .NET framework. Overview of assemblies from MSDN
20. Describe the difference between inline and code behind.Inline code written along side the html in a page. Code-behind is code written in a separate file and referenced by the .aspx page.
21. Explain what a diffgram is, and a good use for one?The DiffGram is one of the two XML formats that you can use to render DataSet object contents to XML. A good use is reading database data to an XML file to be sent to a Web Service.
22. Whats MSIL, and why should my developers need an appreciation of it if at all?MSIL is the Microsoft Intermediate Language. All .NET compatible languages will get converted to MSIL. MSIL also allows the .NET Framework to JIT compile the assembly on the installed computer.
23. Which method do you invoke on the DataAdapter control to load your generated dataset with data?The Fill() method.
24. Can you edit data in the Repeater control?No, it just reads the information from its data source.
25. Which template must you provide, in order to display data in a Repeater control?ItemTemplate.
26. How can you provide an alternating color scheme in a Repeater control?Use the AlternatingItemTemplate.
27. What property must you set, and what method must you call in your code, in order to bind the data from a data source to the Repeater control?You must set the DataSource property and call the DataBind method.
28. What base class do all Web Forms inherit from?The Page class.
29. Name two properties common in every validation control?ControlToValidate property and Text property.
30. Which property on a Combo Box do you set with a column name, prior to setting the DataSource, to display data in the combo box?DataTextField property.
31. Which control would you use if you needed to make sure the values in two different controls matched?CompareValidator control.
32. How many classes can a single .NET DLL contain?It can contain many classes.
Web Service Questions
1. What is the transport protocol you use to call a Web service?SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) is the preferred protocol.
2. True or False: A Web service can only be written in .NET?False
3. What does WSDL stand for?Web Services Description Language.
4. Where on the Internet would you look for Web services?http://www.uddi.org/
5. True or False: To test a Web service you must create a Windows application or Web application to consume this service?False, the web service comes with a test page and it provides HTTP-GET method to test.
State Management Questions
1. What is ViewState?ViewState allows the state of objects (serializable) to be stored in a hidden field on the page. ViewState is transported to the client and back to the server, and is not stored on the server or any other external source. ViewState is used the retain the state of server-side objects between postabacks.
2. What is the lifespan for items stored in ViewState?Item stored in ViewState exist for the life of the current page. This includes postbacks (to the same page).
3. What does the "EnableViewState" property do? Why would I want it on or off?It allows the page to save the users input on a form across postbacks. It saves the server-side values for a given control into ViewState, which is stored as a hidden value on the page before sending the page to the clients browser. When the page is posted back to the server the server control is recreated with the state stored in viewstate.
4. What are the different types of Session state management options available with ASP.NET?ASP.NET provides In-Process and Out-of-Process state management. In-Process stores the session in memory on the web server. This requires the a "sticky-server" (or no load-balancing) so that the user is always reconnected to the same web server. Out-of-Process Session state management stores data in an external data source. The external data source may be either a SQL Server or a State Server service. Out-of-Process state management requires that all objects stored in session are serializable.
Interview questions for C# developers
Useful for preparation, but too specific to be used in the interview.
1. Is it possible to inline assembly or IL in C# code? - No.
2. Is it possible to have different access modifiers on the get/set methods of a property? - No. The access modifier on a property applies to both its get and set accessors. What you need to do if you want them to be different is make the property read-only (by only providing a get accessor) and create a private/internal set method that is separate from the property.
3. Is it possible to have a static indexer in C#? - No. Static indexers are not allowed in C#.


.NET deployment questions
1. What do you know about .NET assemblies? Assemblies are the smallest units of versioning and deployment in the .NET application. Assemblies are also the building blocks for programs such as Web services, Windows services, serviced components, and .NET remoting applications.
2. What’s the difference between private and shared assembly? Private assembly is used inside an application only and does not have to be identified by a strong name. Shared assembly can be used by multiple applications and has to have a strong name.
3. What’s a strong name? A strong name includes the name of the assembly, version number, culture identity, and a public key token.
4. How can you tell the application to look for assemblies at the locations other than its own install? Use thedirective in the XML .config file for a given application.

should do the trick. Or you can add additional search paths in the Properties box of the deployed application.
5. How can you debug failed assembly binds? Use the Assembly Binding Log Viewer (fuslogvw.exe) to find out the paths searched.
6. Where are shared assemblies stored? Global assembly cache.
7. How can you create a strong name for a .NET assembly? With the help of Strong Name tool (sn.exe).
8. Where’s global assembly cache located on the system? Usually C:\winnt\assembly or C:\windows\assembly.
9. Can you have two files with the same file name in GAC? Yes, remember that GAC is a very special folder, and while normally you would not be able to place two files with the same name into a Windows folder, GAC differentiates by version number as well, so it’s possible for MyApp.dll and MyApp.dll to co-exist in GAC if the first one is version 1.0.0.0 and the second one is 1.1.0.0.
10. So let’s say I have an application that uses MyApp.dll assembly, version 1.0.0.0. There is a security bug in that assembly, and I publish the patch, issuing it under name MyApp.dll 1.1.0.0. How do I tell the client applications that are already installed to start using this new MyApp.dll? Use publisher policy. To configure a publisher policy, use the publisher policy configuration file, which uses a format similar app .config file. But unlike the app .config file, a publisher policy file needs to be compiled into an assembly and placed in the GAC.
11. What is delay signing? Delay signing allows you to place a shared assembly in the GAC by signing the assembly with just the public key. This allows the assembly to be signed with the private key at a later stage, when the development process is complete and the component or assembly is ready to be deployed. This process enables developers to work with shared assemblies as if they were strongly named, and it secures the private key of the signature from being accessed at different stages of development.
ADO.Net
Why are Server control tags shown in the browser instead of the controls it represents?
This is because the server control tags were not converted into their respecting HTML element tags by ASP.Net. This happens when ASP.Net is not properly registered with IIS. .Net framework provides an Administration utility that manages the installation and uninstallation of multiple versions of ASP.NET on a single machine. You can find the file in C:\WINNT\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v**\aspnet_regiis.exe use the command: aspnet_regiis.exe -u ---> to uninstall current asp.net version. use the command: aspnet_regiis.exe -i ---> to install current asp.net version
What are the Best practices for side-by-side execution of Framework 1.1 and 2.0?
In ASP.NET, applications are said to be running side by side when they are installed on the same computer, but use different versions of the .NET Framework.
Can I have VS.NET and the Visual Studio 6.0 installed on the same machine?
Yes! VS.Net works with the .Net framework, while VS6.0 works with MFC or the Windows API directly, for the most part. They can be installed and run on the same machine without any considerations.
What is Assembly name and name space?
An assembly is a logical unit of code. Physically it may exist as dll or an exe. which can contain one or more files and they can be any file types like image files, text files etc. along with DLLs or EXEs.When you compile your source code by default the exe/dll which is generated is actually an assemblyand every assembly file contains information about itself which is called as Assembly Manifest.Namespace is an abstract container providing context for the items it holds and allows disambiguation of items having the same name (residing in different namespaces. It can also be said as a context for identifiers. So under a namespace you can have multiple assemblies.
what is capacity of dataset?
DataSet is logical represantation of database so it can store as much as database.
What is deployment? How do you deploy .Net and Java applications
Deployment - It is the procedure to deploy Web Application on the Server. You can deploy .Net application by simply Xcopy and create virtual directory for the application on server.
Where this DataSet is Stored?
Dataset is an in-memory representation of a database. Its stored no where but in memory. Goes off when GC stats after a littl sleep.
How different are interface and abstract class in .Net?
When a class is not provided with full functionalitythen it is declared as abstract.it doesn't support instance creation as well as it cannot be overridable to child class.interface is a colection of methods only without functionality.interface is 90% same as abstract class.
How does vs.net 2005 support biztalkserver?
if you install biztalk server it provides Biztalk Project in the project types like webproject, windows project, console project. We use rest of the products of the Biztalk like adapters and all those thing and use them in .net.
what is marshling?
Marshaling performs the necessary conversions in data formats between managed and unmanaged code.CLR allows managed code to interoperate with unmanaged code usining COM Marshaler(Component of CLR).
Can you explain the difference between an ADO.NET Dataset and an ADO Recordset?
A DataSet can represent an entire relational database in memory, complete with tables, relations, and views.
A DataSet is designed to work without any continuing connection to the original data source.
Data in a DataSet is bulk-loaded, rather than being loaded on demand.
There's no concept of cursor types in a DataSet.
DataSets have no current record pointer You can use For Each loops to move through the data.
You can store many edits in a DataSet, and write them to the original data source in a single operation.
Though the DataSet is universal, other objects in ADO.NET come in different versions for different data sources.
In .NET Compact Framework, can I free memory explicitly without waiting for garbage collector to free the memory?
.NET Compact Framework come with CLR which perform automatic garbage collector to free the memory without using destector(perform garbage collector when is declear)
Asp.Net
What’s the difference between Response.Write() andResponse.Output.Write()?
Response.Output.Write() allows you to write formatted output.
What methods are fired during the page load?
Init() - when the page is instantiatedLoad() - when the page is loaded into server memoryPreRender() - the brief moment before the page is displayed to the user as HTMLUnload() - when page finishes loading.
When during the page processing cycle is ViewState available?
After the Init() and before the Page_Load(), or OnLoad() for a control.
What namespace does the Web page belong in the .NET Framework class hierarchy?
System.Web.UI.Page
Where do you store the information about the user’s locale?
CodeBehind is relevant to Visual Studio.NET only.
What’s the difference between Codebehind="MyCode.aspx.cs" andSrc="MyCode.aspx.cs"?
CodeBehind is relevant to Visual Studio.NET only.
What is the Global.asax used for?
The Global.asax (including the Global.asax.cs file) is used to implement application and session level events.
What are the Application_Start and Session_Start subroutines used for?
This is where you can set the specific variables for the Application and Session objects.
Whats an assembly?
Assemblies are the building blocks of the .NET framework;
Whats MSIL, and why should my developers need an appreciation of it if at all?
MSIL is the Microsoft Intermediate Language. All .NET compatible languages will get converted to MSIL. MSIL also allows the .NET Framework to JIT compile the assembly on the installed computer.
Which method do you invoke on the DataAdapter control to load your generated dataset with data?
The Fill() method.
Can you edit data in the Repeater control?
No, it just reads the information from its data source.
Which template must you provide, in order to display data in a Repeater control?
ItemTemplate.
Name two properties common in every validation control?
ControlToValidate property and Text property.
What base class do all Web Forms inherit from?
The Page class.
What is the difference between Server.Transfer and Response.Redirect? Why would I choose one over the other?
Server.Transfer transfers page processing from one page directly to the next page without making a round-trip back to the client's browser. This provides a faster response with a little less overhead on the server. Server.Transfer does not update the clients url history list or current url. Response.Redirect is used to redirect the user's browser to another page or site. This performas a trip back to the client where the client's browser is redirected to the new page. The user's browser history list is updated to reflect the new address
What is ViewState?
ViewState allows the state of objects (serializable) to be stored in a hidden field on the page. ViewState is transported to the client and back to the server, and is not stored on the server or any other external source. ViewState is used the retain the state of server-side objects between postabacks.
What is the lifespan for items stored in ViewState?
Item stored in ViewState exist for the life of the current page. This includes postbacks (to the same page).
What does the "EnableViewState" property do? Why would I want it on or off?
It allows the page to save the users input on a form across postbacks. It saves the server-side values for a given control into ViewState, which is stored as a hidden value on the page before sending the page to the clients browser. When the page is posted back to the server the server control is recreated with the state stored in viewstate.
What are the different types of Session state management options available with ASP.NET?
ASP.NET provides In-Process and Out-of-Process state management. In-Process stores the session in memory on the web server. This requires the a "sticky-server" (or no load-balancing) so that the user is always reconnected to the same web server. Out-of-Process Session state management stores data in an external data source. The external data source may be either a SQL Server or a State Server service. Out-of-Process state management requires that all objects stored in session are serializable.
What is ASP.NET?
ASP.NET is a programming framework built on the common language runtime that can be used on a server to build powerful Web applications.
How To Repair ASP.Net IIS Mapping After You Remove and Reinstall IIS?
To reassociate aspx file extensions with ASP.Net runtime, you'll have to run the utlity aspnet_regiis.exe -i
What are the Best practices for side-by-side execution of Framework 1.0 and 1.1?
In ASP.NET, applications are said to be running side by side when they are installed on the same computer, but use different versions of the .NET Framework.
How should I check whether IIS is installed or not?
To verify if IIS is installed, go to your 'Add or Remove Programs' utility in the Control panel and click on the 'Add/Remove Windows Components' in the side menu. On XP Pro and below, you should see an item called "Internet Information Services (IIS)". If this is checked, IIS should be installed. On Win2K3, you'll see "Application Server". If this is checked, select it and then click 'Details'. Another form should open which will contain "Internet Information Services (IIS)". If it is checked, IIS should be installed.
In Visual Studio .NET, how do I create a new ASP.NET application for an existing ASP.NET project?
First create an IIS application using the IIS MMC. Then in Visual Studio .NET, use the "New Project In Existing Folder" project template (at the end of the template list). It will first ask you for the project name (use the same one you created for the IIS application). Click OK button. Then enter in physical folder location.
In Visual Studio .NET, how do I create a new ASP.NET application which does not have a physical path under wwwroot?
You must first create an IIS application using the IIS MMC. Then in Visual Studio .NET, create a new ASP.NET application and give it the same name you used for the IIS application
How to Configure the ASP.NET Version to use for Each Application(developed using 1.1)?
To configure WebApp2 to use ASP.NET 1.1, follow these steps:
Click Start, and then click Run.
In the Open text box, type cmd, and then click OK.
At the command prompt, locate the following directory: WindowsDirectory\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v1.1.4322\
At the command prompt, type one of the following commands:
To Install ASP.NET 1.1 recursively aspnet_regiis -s W3SVC/1/ROOT/WebApp2
To Install ASP.NET 1.1 non-recursivelyaspnet_regiis -sn W3SVC/1/ROOT/WebApp2
Can I have VS.NET and the Visual Studio 6.0 installed on the same machine?
Yes! VS.Net works with the .Net framework, while VS6.0 works with MFC or the Windows API directly, for the most part. They can be installed and run on the same machine without any considerations.
In Visual Studio .NET, how do I create a new ASP.NET application for an existing ASP.NET project?
First create an IIS application using the IIS MMC. Then in Visual Studio .NET, use the "New Project In Existing Folder" project template (at the end of the template list). It will first ask you for the project name (use the same one you created for the IIS application). Click OK button. Then enter in physical folder location.


.NET Supported Language Sites
A#
APL
ASP.NET: ASM to IL
AsmL
Basic
QuickBasic for .NET
VB .NET (Microsoft)
VB .NET (Mono)
BETA
Boo
BlueDragon
C
lcc
cscc
C#
C# (Microsoft)
C# (Mono)
Cw
C++ (Microsoft)
Cat
CIL
Cobol
NetCOBOL (Fujitsu)
Net Express (Micro Focus)
CULE.NET
Eiffel
F#
Forth
Fortran
Fortran (Lahey)
Fortran (Salford)
Haskell (VHS)
IronPython
Java
J# (Microsoft)
Java (IKVM .NET)
JNBridge
JavaScript
JScript .NET
JANET
Lego.NET
Lisp
L#
FOIL
RDNZL
leXico
LOGO
Lua.NET
M#
Mercury
Metaphor
MixNet
Mondrain
Nermerle
Oberon
Ook# .NET
Pan#
Pascal
Chrome
Component Pascal
Pascal (TMT)
Perl
PerlNET
PerlSharp
PHP
Prolog
RPG
Ruby
IronRuby
RubyCLR
Ruby/.NET Bridge
Ruby.NET
Smalltalk
S#
#Smalltalk
Smalltalk and .NET
Scala
SML .NET
Spec#
Tachy
TickleSharp
Vulcan.NET
Zonnon


Basic .NET and ASP.NET interview questions

Basic .NET and ASP.NET interview questions
Explain the .NET architecture.
How many languages .NET is supporting now? - When .NET was introduced it came with several languages. VB.NET, C#, COBOL and Perl, etc. The site DotNetLanguages.Net says 44 languages are supported. (Check in Page -12)


How is .NET able to support multiple languages? - a language should comply with the Common Language Runtime standard to become a .NET language. In .NET, code is compiled to Microsoft Intermediate Language (MSIL for short). This is called as Managed Code. This Managed code is run in .NET environment. So after compilation to this IL the language is not a barrier. A code can call or use a function written in another language.
How ASP .NET different from ASP? - Scripting is separated from the HTML, Code is compiled as a DLL, these DLLs can be executed on the server.
Resource Files: How to use the resource files, how to know which language to use?
What is smart navigation? - The cursor position is maintained when the page gets refreshed due to the server side validation and the page gets refreshed.
What is view state? - The web is stateless. But in ASP.NET, the state of a page is maintained in the in the page itself automatically. How? The values are encrypted and saved in hidden controls. this is done automatically by the ASP.NET. This can be switched off / on for a single control
Explain the life cycle of an ASP .NET page.
How do you validate the controls in an ASP .NET page? - Using special validation controls that are meant for this. We have Range Validator, Email Validator.
Can the validation be done in the server side? Or this can be done only in the Client side? - Client side is done by default. Server side validation is also possible. We can switch off the client side and server side can be done.
How to manage pagination in a page? - Using pagination option in DataGrid control. We have to set the number of records for a page, then it takes care of pagination by itself.
What is ADO .NET and what is difference between ADO and ADO.NET? - ADO.NET is stateless mechanism. I can treat the ADO.Net as a separate in-memory database where in I can use relationships between the tables and select insert and updates to the database. I can update the actual database as a batch.
Interview Questions - C#
What’s the implicit name of the parameter that gets passed into the class’ set method? Value, and its datatype depends on whatever variable we’re changing.
How do you inherit from a class in C#? Place a colon and then the name of the base class. Notice that it’s double colon in C++.
Does C# support multiple inheritance? No, use interfaces instead.
When you inherit a protected class-level variable, who is it available to? Classes in the same namespace.
Are private class-level variables inherited? Yes, but they are not accessible, so looking at it you can honestly say that they are not inherited. But they are.
Describe the accessibility modifier protected internal. It’s available to derived classes and classes within the same Assembly (and naturally from the base class it’s declared in).
C# provides a default constructor for me. I write a constructor that takes a string as a parameter, but want to keep the no parameter one. How many constructors should I write? Two. Once you write at least one constructor, C# cancels the freebie constructor, and now you have to write one yourself, even if there’s no implementation in it.
What’s the top .NET class that everything is derived from? System.Object.
How’s method overriding different from overloading? When overriding, you change the method behavior for a derived class. Overloading simply involves having a method with the same name within the class.
What does the keyword virtual mean in the method definition? The method can be over-ridden.
Can you declare the override method static while the original method is non-static? No, you can’t, the signature of the virtual method must remain the same, only the keyword virtual is changed to keyword override.
Can you override private virtual methods? No, moreover, you cannot access private methods in inherited classes, have to be protected in the base class to allow any sort of access.
Can you prevent your class from being inherited and becoming a base class for some other classes? Yes, that’s what keyword sealed in the class definition is for. The developer trying to derive from your class will get a message: cannot inherit from Sealed class WhateverBaseClassName. It’s the same concept as final class in Java.
Can you allow class to be inherited, but prevent the method from being over-ridden? Yes, just leave the class public and make the method sealed.
What’s an abstract class? A class that cannot be instantiated. A concept in C++ known as pure virtual method. A class that must be inherited and have the methods over-ridden. Essentially, it’s a blueprint for a class without any implementation.
When do you absolutely have to declare a class as abstract (as opposed to free-willed educated choice or decision based on UML diagram)? When at least one of the methods in the class is abstract. When the class itself is inherited from an abstract class, but not all base abstract methods have been over-ridden.
What’s an interface class? It’s an abstract class with public abstract methods all of which must be implemented in the inherited classes.
Why can’t you specify the accessibility modifier for methods inside the interface? They all must be public. Therefore, to prevent you from getting the false impression that you have any freedom of choice, you are not allowed to specify any accessibility, it’s public by default.
Can you inherit multiple interfaces? Yes, why not.
And if they have conflicting method names? It’s up to you to implement the method inside your own class, so implementation is left entirely up to you. This might cause a problem on a higher-level scale if similarly named methods from different interfaces expect different data, but as far as compiler cares you’re okay.
What’s the difference between an interface and abstract class? In the interface all methods must be abstract; in the abstract class some methods can be concrete. In the interface no accessibility modifiers are allowed, which is ok in abstract classes.
How can you overload a method? Different parameter data types, different number of parameters, different order of parameters.
If a base class has a bunch of overloaded constructors, and an inherited class has another bunch of overloaded constructors, can you enforce a call from an inherited constructor to an arbitrary base constructor? Yes, just place a colon, and then keyword base (parameter list to invoke the appropriate constructor) in the overloaded constructor definition inside the inherited class.
What’s the difference between System.String and System.StringBuilder classes? System.String is immutable; System.StringBuilder was designed with the purpose of having a mutable string where a variety of operations can be performed.
What’s the advantage of using System.Text.StringBuilder over System.String? StringBuilder is more efficient in the cases, where a lot of manipulation is done to the text. Strings are immutable, so each time it’s being operated on, a new instance is created.
Can you store multiple data types in System.Array? No.
What’s the difference between the System.Array.CopyTo() and System.Array.Clone()? The first one performs a deep copy of the array, the second one is shallow.
How can you sort the elements of the array in descending order? By calling Sort() and then Reverse() methods.
What’s the .NET datatype that allows the retrieval of data by a unique key? HashTable.
What’s class SortedList underneath? A sorted HashTable.
Will finally block get executed if the exception had not occurred? Yes.
What’s the C# equivalent of C++ catch (…), which was a catch-all statement for any possible exception? A catch block that catches the exception of type System.Exception. You can also omit the parameter data type in this case and just write catch {}.
Can multiple catch blocks be executed? No, once the proper catch code fires off, the control is transferred to the finally block (if there are any), and then whatever follows the finally block.
Why is it a bad idea to throw your own exceptions? Well, if at that point you know that an error has occurred, then why not write the proper code to handle that error instead of passing a new Exception object to the catch block? Throwing your own exceptions signifies some design flaws in the project.
What’s a delegate? A delegate object encapsulates a reference to a method. In C++ they were referred to as function pointers.
What’s a multicast delegate? It’s a delegate that points to and eventually fires off several methods.
How’s the DLL Hell problem solved in .NET? Assembly versioning allows the application to specify not only the library it needs to run (which was available under Win32), but also the version of the assembly.
What are the ways to deploy an assembly? An MSI installer, a CAB archive, and XCOPY command.
What’s a satellite assembly? When you write a multilingual or multi-cultural application in .NET, and want to distribute the core application separately from the localized modules, the localized assemblies that modify the core application are called satellite assemblies.
What namespaces are necessary to create a localized application? System.Globalization, System.Resources.
What’s the difference between // comments, /* */ comments and /// comments? Single-line, multi-line and XML documentation comments.
How do you generate documentation from the C# file commented properly with a command-line compiler? Compile it with a /doc switch.
What’s the difference between and XML documentation tag? Single line code example and multiple-line code example.
Is XML case-sensitive? Yes, so and are different elements.
What debugging tools come with the .NET SDK? CorDBG – command-line debugger, and DbgCLR – graphic debugger. Visual Studio .NET uses the DbgCLR. To use CorDbg, you must compile the original C# file using the /debug switch.
What does the This window show in the debugger? It points to the object that’s pointed to by this reference. Object’s instance data is shown.
What does assert() do? In debug compilation, assert takes in a Boolean condition as a parameter, and shows the error dialog if the condition is false. The program proceeds without any interruption if the condition is true.
What’s the difference between the Debug class and Trace class? Documentation looks the same. Use Debug class for debug builds, use Trace class for both debug and release builds.
Why are there five tracing levels in System.Diagnostics.TraceSwitcher? The tracing dumps can be quite verbose and for some applications that are constantly running you run the risk of overloading the machine and the hard drive there. Five levels range from None to Verbose, allowing to fine-tune the tracing activities.
Where is the output of TextWriterTraceListener redirected? To the Console or a text file depending on the parameter passed to the constructor.
How do you debug an ASP.NET Web application? Attach the aspnet_wp.exe process to the DbgClr debugger.
What are three test cases you should go through in unit testing? Positive test cases (correct data, correct output), negative test cases (broken or missing data, proper handling), exception test cases (exceptions are thrown and caught properly).
Can you change the value of a variable while debugging a C# application? Yes, if you are debugging via Visual Studio.NET, just go to Immediate window.
Explain the three services model (three-tier application). Presentation (UI), business (logic and underlying code) and data (from storage or other sources).
What are advantages and disadvantages of Microsoft-provided data provider classes in ADO.NET? SQLServer.NET data provider is high-speed and robust, but requires SQL Server license purchased from Microsoft. OLE-DB.NET is universal for accessing other sources, like Oracle, DB2, Microsoft Access and Informix, but it’s a .NET layer on top of OLE layer, so not the fastest thing in the world. ODBC.NET is a deprecated layer provided for backward compatibility to ODBC engines.
What’s the role of the DataReader class in ADO.NET connections? It returns a read-only dataset from the data source when the command is executed.
What is the wildcard character in SQL? Let’s say you want to query database with LIKE for all employees whose name starts with La. The wildcard character is %, the proper query with LIKE would involve ‘La%’.
Explain ACID rule of thumb for transactions. Transaction must be Atomic (it is one unit of work and does not dependent on previous and following transactions), Consistent (data is either committed or roll back, no “in-between” case where something has been updated and something hasn’t), Isolated (no transaction sees the intermediate results of the current transaction), Durable (the values persist if the data had been committed even if the system crashes right after).
What connections does Microsoft SQL Server support? Windows Authentication (via Active Directory) and SQL Server authentication (via Microsoft SQL Server username and passwords).
Which one is trusted and which one is untrusted? Windows Authentication is trusted because the username and password are checked with the Active Directory, the SQL Server authentication is untrusted, since SQL Server is the only verifier participating in the transaction.
Why would you use untrusted verificaion? Web Services might use it, as well as non-Windows applications.
What does the parameter Initial Catalog define inside Connection String? The database name to connect to.
What’s the data provider name to connect to Access database? Microsoft.Access.
What does Dispose method do with the connection object? Deletes it from the memory.
What is a pre-requisite for connection pooling? Multiple processes must agree that they will share the same connection, where every parameter is the same, including the security settings.
General Questions
1. Does C# support multiple-inheritance? No.
2. Who is a protected class-level variable available to? It is available to any sub-class (a class inheriting this class).
3. Are private class-level variables inherited? Yes, but they are not accessible. Although they are not visible or accessible via the class interface, they are inherited.
4. Describe the accessibility modifier “protected internal”. It is available to classes that are within the same assembly and derived from the specified base class.
5. What’s the top .NET class that everything is derived from? System.Object.
6. What does the term immutable mean?The data value may not be changed. Note: The variable value may be changed, but the original immutable data value was discarded and a new data value was created in memory.
7. What’s the difference between System.String and System.Text.StringBuilder classes?System.String is immutable. System.StringBuilder was designed with the purpose of having a mutable string where a variety of operations can be performed.
8. What’s the advantage of using System.Text.StringBuilder over System.String?StringBuilder is more efficient in cases where there is a large amount of string manipulation. Strings are immutable, so each time a string is changed, a new instance in memory is created.
9. Can you store multiple data types in System.Array?No.
10. What’s the difference between the System.Array.CopyTo() and System.Array.Clone()?The Clone() method returns a new array (a shallow copy) object containing all the elements in the original array. The CopyTo() method copies the elements into another existing array. Both perform a shallow copy. A shallow copy means the contents (each array element) contains references to the same object as the elements in the original array. A deep copy (which neither of these methods performs) would create a new instance of each element's object, resulting in a different, yet identacle object.
11. How can you sort the elements of the array in descending order?By calling Sort() and then Reverse() methods.
12. What’s the .NET collection class that allows an element to be accessed using a unique key?HashTable.
13. What class is underneath the SortedList class?A sorted HashTable.
14. Will the finally block get executed if an exception has not occurred?­Yes.
15. What’s the C# syntax to catch any possible exception?A catch block that catches the exception of type System.Exception. You can also omit the parameter data type in this case and just write catch {}.
16. Can multiple catch blocks be executed for a single try statement?No. Once the proper catch block processed, control is transferred to the finally block (if there are any).
17. Explain the three services model commonly know as a three-tier application.Presentation (UI), Business (logic and underlying code) and Data (from storage or other sources).
Class Questions
1. What is the syntax to inherit from a class in C#? Place a colon and then the name of the base class.Example: class MyNewClass : MyBaseClass
2. Can you prevent your class from being inherited by another class? Yes. The keyword “sealed” will prevent the class from being inherited.
3. Can you allow a class to be inherited, but prevent the method from being over-ridden?Yes. Just leave the class public and make the method sealed.
4. What’s an abstract class?A class that cannot be instantiated. An abstract class is a class that must be inherited and have the methods overridden. An abstract class is essentially a blueprint for a class without any implementation.
5. When do you absolutely have to declare a class as abstract?1. When the class itself is inherited from an abstract class, but not all base abstract methods have been overridden. 2. When at least one of the methods in the class is abstract.
6. What is an interface class?Interfaces, like classes, define a set of properties, methods, and events. But unlike classes, interfaces do not provide implementation. They are implemented by classes, and defined as separate entities from classes.
7. Why can’t you specify the accessibility modifier for methods inside the interface?They all must be public, and are therefore public by default.
8. Can you inherit multiple interfaces?Yes. .NET does support multiple interfaces.
9. What happens if you inherit multiple interfaces and they have conflicting method names?It’s up to you to implement the method inside your own class, so implementation is left entirely up to you. This might cause a problem on a higher-level scale if similarly named methods from different interfaces expect different data, but as far as compiler cares you’re okay. To Do: Investigate
10. What’s the difference between an interface and abstract class?In an interface class, all methods are abstract - there is no implementation. In an abstract class some methods can be concrete. In an interface class, no accessibility modifiers are allowed. An abstract class may have accessibility modifiers.
11. What is the difference between a Struct and a Class?Structs are value-type variables and are thus saved on the stack, additional overhead but faster retrieval. Another difference is that structs cannot inherit.
Method and Property Questions
1. What’s the implicit name of the parameter that gets passed into the set method/property of a class? Value. The data type of the value parameter is defined by whatever data type the property is declared as.
2. What does the keyword “virtual” declare for a method or property? The method or property can be overridden.
3. How is method overriding different from method overloading? When overriding a method, you change the behavior of the method for the derived class. Overloading a method simply involves having another method with the same name within the class.
4. Can you declare an override method to be static if the original method is not static? No. The signature of the virtual method must remain the same. (Note: Only the keyword virtual is changed to keyword override)
5. What are the different ways a method can be overloaded? Different parameter data types, different number of parameters, different order of parameters.
6. If a base class has a number of overloaded constructors, and an inheriting class has a number of overloaded constructors; can you enforce a call from an inherited constructor to a specific base constructor?Yes, just place a colon, and then keyword base (parameter list to invoke the appropriate constructor) in the overloaded constructor definition inside the inherited class.
Events and Delegates
1. What’s a delegate? A delegate object encapsulates a reference to a method.
2. What’s a multicast delegate? A delegate that has multiple handlers assigned to it. Each assigned handler (method) is called.
XML Documentation Questions
1. Is XML case-sensitive? Yes.
2. What’s the difference between // comments, /* */ comments and /// comments? Single-line comments, multi-line comments, and XML documentation comments.
3. How do you generate documentation from the C# file commented properly with a command-line compiler? Compile it with the /doc switch.
Debugging and Testing Questions
1. What debugging tools come with the .NET SDK?1. CorDBG – command-line debugger. To use CorDbg, you must compile the original C# file using the /debug switch. 2. DbgCLR – graphic debugger. Visual Studio .NET uses the DbgCLR.
2. What does assert() method do? In debug compilation, assert takes in a Boolean condition as a parameter, and shows the error dialog if the condition is false. The program proceeds without any interruption if the condition is true.
3. What’s the difference between the Debug class and Trace class? Documentation looks the same. Use Debug class for debug builds, use Trace class for both debug and release builds.
4. Why are there five tracing levels in System.Diagnostics.TraceSwitcher? The tracing dumps can be quite verbose. For applications that are constantly running you run the risk of overloading the machine and the hard drive. Five levels range from None to Verbose, allowing you to fine-tune the tracing activities.
5. Where is the output of TextWriterTraceListener redirected? To the Console or a text file depending on the parameter passed to the constructor.
6. How do you debug an ASP.NET Web application? Attach the aspnet_wp.exe process to the DbgClr debugger.
7. What are three test cases you should go through in unit testing? 1. Positive test cases (correct data, correct output).2. Negative test cases (broken or missing data, proper handling).3. Exception test cases (exceptions are thrown and caught properly).
8. Can you change the value of a variable while debugging a C# application? Yes. If you are debugging via Visual Studio.NET, just go to Immediate window.
ADO.NET and Database Questions
1. What is the role of the DataReader class in ADO.NET connections? It returns a read-only, forward-only rowset from the data source. A DataReader provides fast access when a forward-only sequential read is needed.
2. What are advantages and disadvantages of Microsoft-provided data provider classes in ADO.NET? SQLServer.NET data provider is high-speed and robust, but requires SQL Server license purchased from Microsoft. OLE-DB.NET is universal for accessing other sources, like Oracle, DB2, Microsoft Access and Informix. OLE-DB.NET is a .NET layer on top of the OLE layer, so it’s not as fastest and efficient as SqlServer.NET.
3. What is the wildcard character in SQL? Let’s say you want to query database with LIKE for all employees whose name starts with La. The wildcard character is %, the proper query with LIKE would involve ‘La%’.
4. Explain ACID rule of thumb for transactions.A transaction must be:1. Atomic - it is one unit of work and does not dependent on previous and following transactions.2. Consistent - data is either committed or roll back, no “in-between” case where something has been updated and something hasn’t.3. Isolated - no transaction sees the intermediate results of the current transaction).4. Durable - the values persist if the data had been committed even if the system crashes right after.
5. What connections does Microsoft SQL Server support? Windows Authentication (via Active Directory) and SQL Server authentication (via Microsoft SQL Server username and password).
6. Between Windows Authentication and SQL Server Authentication, which one is trusted and which one is untrusted? Windows Authentication is trusted because the username and password are checked with the Active Directory, the SQL Server authentication is untrusted, since SQL Server is the only verifier participating in the transaction.
7. What does the Initial Catalog parameter define in the connection string? The database name to connect to.
8. What does the Dispose method do with the connection object? Deletes it from the memory.To Do: answer better. The current answer is not entirely correct.
9. What is a pre-requisite for connection pooling? Multiple processes must agree that they will share the same connection, where every parameter is the same, including the security settings. The connection string must be identical.
Assembly Questions
1. How is the DLL Hell problem solved in .NET? Assembly versioning allows the application to specify not only the library it needs to run (which was available under Win32), but also the version of the assembly.
2. What are the ways to deploy an assembly? An MSI installer, a CAB archive, and XCOPY command.
3. What is a satellite assembly? When you write a multilingual or multi-cultural application in .NET, and want to distribute the core application separately from the localized modules, the localized assemblies that modify the core application are called satellite assemblies.
4. What namespaces are necessary to create a localized application? System.Globalization and System.Resources.
5. What is the smallest unit of execution in .NET?an Assembly.
6. When should you call the garbage collector in .NET?As a good rule, you should not call the garbage collector. However, you could call the garbage collector when you are done using a large object (or set of objects) to force the garbage collector to dispose of those very large objects from memory. However, this is usually not a good practice.
7. How do you convert a value-type to a reference-type?Use Boxing.
8. What happens in memory when you Box and Unbox a value-type?Boxing converts a value-type to a reference-type, thus storing the object on the heap. Unboxing converts a reference-type to a value-type, thus storing the value on the stack.
ASP.NET Interview Questions
This is a list of questions I have gathered and created over a period of time from my experience, many of which I felt where incomplete or simply wrong. I have finally taken the time to go through each question and correct them to the best of my ability. However, please feel free to post feedback to challenge, improve, or suggest new questions. I want to thank those of you that have contributed quality questions and corrections thus far.
There are some questions in this list that I do not consider to be good questions for an interview. However, they do exist on other lists available on the Internet so I felt compelled to keep them here for easy access.
1. Describe the role of inetinfo.exe, aspnet_isapi.dll andaspnet_wp.exe in the page loading process.inetinfo.exe is theMicrosoft IIS server running, handling ASP.NET requests among other things.When an ASP.NET request is received (usually a file with .aspx extension), the ISAPI filter aspnet_isapi.dll takes care of it by passing the request tothe actual worker process aspnet_wp.exe.
2. What’s the difference between Response.Write() andResponse.Output.Write()?Response.Output.Write() allows you to write formatted output.
3. What methods are fired during the page load?Init() - when the page is instantiatedLoad() - when the page is loaded into server memoryPreRender() - the brief moment before the page is displayed to the user as HTMLUnload() - when page finishes loading.
4. When during the page processing cycle is ViewState available?After the Init() and before the Page_Load(), or OnLoad() for a control.
5. What namespace does the Web page belong in the .NET Framework class hierarchy?System.Web.UI.Page
6. Where do you store the information about the user’s locale?System.Web.UI.Page.Culture
7. What’s the difference between Codebehind="MyCode.aspx.cs" andSrc="MyCode.aspx.cs"?CodeBehind is relevant to Visual Studio.NET only.
8. What’s a bubbled event?When you have a complex control, like DataGrid, writing an event processing routine for each object (cell, button, row, etc.) is quite tedious. The controls can bubble up their eventhandlers, allowing the main DataGrid event handler to take care of its constituents.
9. Suppose you want a certain ASP.NET function executed on MouseOver for a certain button. Where do you add an event handler?Add an OnMouseOver attribute to the button. Example: btnSubmit.Attributes.Add("onmouseover","someClientCodeHere();");
10. What data types do the RangeValidator control support?Integer, String, and Date.
11. Explain the differences between Server-side and Client-side code?Server-side code executes on the server. Client-side code executes in the client's browser.
12. What type of code (server or client) is found in a Code-Behind class?The answer is server-side code since code-behind is executed on the server. However, during the code-behind's execution on the server, it can render client-side code such as JavaScript to be processed in the clients browser. But just to be clear, code-behind executes on the server, thus making it server-side code.
13. Should user input data validation occur server-side or client-side? Why?All user input data validation should occur on the server at a minimum. Additionally, client-side validation can be performed where deemed appropriate and feasable to provide a richer, more responsive experience for the user.
14. What is the difference between Server.Transfer and Response.Redirect? Why would I choose one over the other?Server.Transfer transfers page processing from one page directly to the next page without making a round-trip back to the client's browser. This provides a faster response with a little less overhead on the server. Server.Transfer does not update the clients url history list or current url. Response.Redirect is used to redirect the user's browser to another page or site. This performas a trip back to the client where the client's browser is redirected to the new page. The user's browser history list is updated to reflect the new address.
15. Can you explain the difference between an ADO.NET Dataset and an ADO Recordset?Valid answers are:· A DataSet can represent an entire relational database in memory, complete with tables, relations, and views.· A DataSet is designed to work without any continuing connection to the original data source.· Data in a DataSet is bulk-loaded, rather than being loaded on demand.· There's no concept of cursor types in a DataSet.· DataSets have no current record pointer You can use For Each loops to move through the data.· You can store many edits in a DataSet, and write them to the original data source in a single operation.· Though the DataSet is universal, other objects in ADO.NET come in different versions for different data sources.
16. What is the Global.asax used for?The Global.asax (including the Global.asax.cs file) is used to implement application and session level events.
17. What are the Application_Start and Session_Start subroutines used for?This is where you can set the specific variables for the Application and Session objects.
18. Can you explain what inheritance is and an example of when you might use it?When you want to inherit (use the functionality of) another class. Example: With a base class named Employee, a Manager class could be derived from the Employee base class.
19. Whats an assembly?Assemblies are the building blocks of the .NET framework. Overview of assemblies from MSDN
20. Describe the difference between inline and code behind.Inline code written along side the html in a page. Code-behind is code written in a separate file and referenced by the .aspx page.
21. Explain what a diffgram is, and a good use for one?The DiffGram is one of the two XML formats that you can use to render DataSet object contents to XML. A good use is reading database data to an XML file to be sent to a Web Service.
22. Whats MSIL, and why should my developers need an appreciation of it if at all?MSIL is the Microsoft Intermediate Language. All .NET compatible languages will get converted to MSIL. MSIL also allows the .NET Framework to JIT compile the assembly on the installed computer.
23. Which method do you invoke on the DataAdapter control to load your generated dataset with data?The Fill() method.
24. Can you edit data in the Repeater control?No, it just reads the information from its data source.
25. Which template must you provide, in order to display data in a Repeater control?ItemTemplate.
26. How can you provide an alternating color scheme in a Repeater control?Use the AlternatingItemTemplate.
27. What property must you set, and what method must you call in your code, in order to bind the data from a data source to the Repeater control?You must set the DataSource property and call the DataBind method.
28. What base class do all Web Forms inherit from?The Page class.
29. Name two properties common in every validation control?ControlToValidate property and Text property.
30. Which property on a Combo Box do you set with a column name, prior to setting the DataSource, to display data in the combo box?DataTextField property.
31. Which control would you use if you needed to make sure the values in two different controls matched?CompareValidator control.
32. How many classes can a single .NET DLL contain?It can contain many classes.
Web Service Questions
1. What is the transport protocol you use to call a Web service?SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) is the preferred protocol.
2. True or False: A Web service can only be written in .NET?False
3. What does WSDL stand for?Web Services Description Language.
4. Where on the Internet would you look for Web services?http://www.uddi.org/
5. True or False: To test a Web service you must create a Windows application or Web application to consume this service?False, the web service comes with a test page and it provides HTTP-GET method to test.
State Management Questions
1. What is ViewState?ViewState allows the state of objects (serializable) to be stored in a hidden field on the page. ViewState is transported to the client and back to the server, and is not stored on the server or any other external source. ViewState is used the retain the state of server-side objects between postabacks.
2. What is the lifespan for items stored in ViewState?Item stored in ViewState exist for the life of the current page. This includes postbacks (to the same page).
3. What does the "EnableViewState" property do? Why would I want it on or off?It allows the page to save the users input on a form across postbacks. It saves the server-side values for a given control into ViewState, which is stored as a hidden value on the page before sending the page to the clients browser. When the page is posted back to the server the server control is recreated with the state stored in viewstate.
4. What are the different types of Session state management options available with ASP.NET?ASP.NET provides In-Process and Out-of-Process state management. In-Process stores the session in memory on the web server. This requires the a "sticky-server" (or no load-balancing) so that the user is always reconnected to the same web server. Out-of-Process Session state management stores data in an external data source. The external data source may be either a SQL Server or a State Server service. Out-of-Process state management requires that all objects stored in session are serializable.
Interview questions for C# developers
Useful for preparation, but too specific to be used in the interview.
1. Is it possible to inline assembly or IL in C# code? - No.
2. Is it possible to have different access modifiers on the get/set methods of a property? - No. The access modifier on a property applies to both its get and set accessors. What you need to do if you want them to be different is make the property read-only (by only providing a get accessor) and create a private/internal set method that is separate from the property.
3. Is it possible to have a static indexer in C#? - No. Static indexers are not allowed in C#.



.NET deployment questions
1. What do you know about .NET assemblies? Assemblies are the smallest units of versioning and deployment in the .NET application. Assemblies are also the building blocks for programs such as Web services, Windows services, serviced components, and .NET remoting applications.
2. What’s the difference between private and shared assembly? Private assembly is used inside an application only and does not have to be identified by a strong name. Shared assembly can be used by multiple applications and has to have a strong name.
3. What’s a strong name? A strong name includes the name of the assembly, version number, culture identity, and a public key token.
4. How can you tell the application to look for assemblies at the locations other than its own install? Use thedirective in the XML .config file for a given application.

should do the trick. Or you can add additional search paths in the Properties box of the deployed application.
5. How can you debug failed assembly binds? Use the Assembly Binding Log Viewer (fuslogvw.exe) to find out the paths searched.
6. Where are shared assemblies stored? Global assembly cache.
7. How can you create a strong name for a .NET assembly? With the help of Strong Name tool (sn.exe).
8. Where’s global assembly cache located on the system? Usually C:\winnt\assembly or C:\windows\assembly.
9. Can you have two files with the same file name in GAC? Yes, remember that GAC is a very special folder, and while normally you would not be able to place two files with the same name into a Windows folder, GAC differentiates by version number as well, so it’s possible for MyApp.dll and MyApp.dll to co-exist in GAC if the first one is version 1.0.0.0 and the second one is 1.1.0.0.
10. So let’s say I have an application that uses MyApp.dll assembly, version 1.0.0.0. There is a security bug in that assembly, and I publish the patch, issuing it under name MyApp.dll 1.1.0.0. How do I tell the client applications that are already installed to start using this new MyApp.dll? Use publisher policy. To configure a publisher policy, use the publisher policy configuration file, which uses a format similar app .config file. But unlike the app .config file, a publisher policy file needs to be compiled into an assembly and placed in the GAC.
11. What is delay signing? Delay signing allows you to place a shared assembly in the GAC by signing the assembly with just the public key. This allows the assembly to be signed with the private key at a later stage, when the development process is complete and the component or assembly is ready to be deployed. This process enables developers to work with shared assemblies as if they were strongly named, and it secures the private key of the signature from being accessed at different stages of development.
ADO.Net
Why are Server control tags shown in the browser instead of the controls it represents?
This is because the server control tags were not converted into their respecting HTML element tags by ASP.Net. This happens when ASP.Net is not properly registered with IIS. .Net framework provides an Administration utility that manages the installation and uninstallation of multiple versions of ASP.NET on a single machine. You can find the file in C:\WINNT\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v**\aspnet_regiis.exe use the command: aspnet_regiis.exe -u ---> to uninstall current asp.net version. use the command: aspnet_regiis.exe -i ---> to install current asp.net version
What are the Best practices for side-by-side execution of Framework 1.1 and 2.0?
In ASP.NET, applications are said to be running side by side when they are installed on the same computer, but use different versions of the .NET Framework.
Can I have VS.NET and the Visual Studio 6.0 installed on the same machine?
Yes! VS.Net works with the .Net framework, while VS6.0 works with MFC or the Windows API directly, for the most part. They can be installed and run on the same machine without any considerations.
What is Assembly name and name space?
An assembly is a logical unit of code. Physically it may exist as dll or an exe. which can contain one or more files and they can be any file types like image files, text files etc. along with DLLs or EXEs.When you compile your source code by default the exe/dll which is generated is actually an assemblyand every assembly file contains information about itself which is called as Assembly Manifest.Namespace is an abstract container providing context for the items it holds and allows disambiguation of items having the same name (residing in different namespaces. It can also be said as a context for identifiers. So under a namespace you can have multiple assemblies.
what is capacity of dataset?
DataSet is logical represantation of database so it can store as much as database.
What is deployment? How do you deploy .Net and Java applications
Deployment - It is the procedure to deploy Web Application on the Server. You can deploy .Net application by simply Xcopy and create virtual directory for the application on server.
Where this DataSet is Stored?
Dataset is an in-memory representation of a database. Its stored no where but in memory. Goes off when GC stats after a littl sleep.
How different are interface and abstract class in .Net?
When a class is not provided with full functionalitythen it is declared as abstract.it doesn't support instance creation as well as it cannot be overridable to child class.interface is a colection of methods only without functionality.interface is 90% same as abstract class.
How does vs.net 2005 support biztalkserver?
if you install biztalk server it provides Biztalk Project in the project types like webproject, windows project, console project. We use rest of the products of the Biztalk like adapters and all those thing and use them in .net.
what is marshling?
Marshaling performs the necessary conversions in data formats between managed and unmanaged code.CLR allows managed code to interoperate with unmanaged code usining COM Marshaler(Component of CLR).
Can you explain the difference between an ADO.NET Dataset and an ADO Recordset?
A DataSet can represent an entire relational database in memory, complete with tables, relations, and views.
A DataSet is designed to work without any continuing connection to the original data source.
Data in a DataSet is bulk-loaded, rather than being loaded on demand.
There's no concept of cursor types in a DataSet.
DataSets have no current record pointer You can use For Each loops to move through the data.
You can store many edits in a DataSet, and write them to the original data source in a single operation.
Though the DataSet is universal, other objects in ADO.NET come in different versions for different data sources.
In .NET Compact Framework, can I free memory explicitly without waiting for garbage collector to free the memory?
.NET Compact Framework come with CLR which perform automatic garbage collector to free the memory without using destector(perform garbage collector when is declear)
Asp.Net
What’s the difference between Response.Write() andResponse.Output.Write()?
Response.Output.Write() allows you to write formatted output.
What methods are fired during the page load?
Init() - when the page is instantiatedLoad() - when the page is loaded into server memoryPreRender() - the brief moment before the page is displayed to the user as HTMLUnload() - when page finishes loading.
When during the page processing cycle is ViewState available?
After the Init() and before the Page_Load(), or OnLoad() for a control.
What namespace does the Web page belong in the .NET Framework class hierarchy?
System.Web.UI.Page
Where do you store the information about the user’s locale?
CodeBehind is relevant to Visual Studio.NET only.
What’s the difference between Codebehind="MyCode.aspx.cs" andSrc="MyCode.aspx.cs"?
CodeBehind is relevant to Visual Studio.NET only.
What is the Global.asax used for?
The Global.asax (including the Global.asax.cs file) is used to implement application and session level events.
What are the Application_Start and Session_Start subroutines used for?
This is where you can set the specific variables for the Application and Session objects.
Whats an assembly?
Assemblies are the building blocks of the .NET framework;
Whats MSIL, and why should my developers need an appreciation of it if at all?
MSIL is the Microsoft Intermediate Language. All .NET compatible languages will get converted to MSIL. MSIL also allows the .NET Framework to JIT compile the assembly on the installed computer.
Which method do you invoke on the DataAdapter control to load your generated dataset with data?
The Fill() method.
Can you edit data in the Repeater control?
No, it just reads the information from its data source.
Which template must you provide, in order to display data in a Repeater control?
ItemTemplate.
Name two properties common in every validation control?
ControlToValidate property and Text property.
What base class do all Web Forms inherit from?
The Page class.
What is the difference between Server.Transfer and Response.Redirect? Why would I choose one over the other?
Server.Transfer transfers page processing from one page directly to the next page without making a round-trip back to the client's browser. This provides a faster response with a little less overhead on the server. Server.Transfer does not update the clients url history list or current url. Response.Redirect is used to redirect the user's browser to another page or site. This performas a trip back to the client where the client's browser is redirected to the new page. The user's browser history list is updated to reflect the new address
What is ViewState?
ViewState allows the state of objects (serializable) to be stored in a hidden field on the page. ViewState is transported to the client and back to the server, and is not stored on the server or any other external source. ViewState is used the retain the state of server-side objects between postabacks.
What is the lifespan for items stored in ViewState?
Item stored in ViewState exist for the life of the current page. This includes postbacks (to the same page).
What does the "EnableViewState" property do? Why would I want it on or off?
It allows the page to save the users input on a form across postbacks. It saves the server-side values for a given control into ViewState, which is stored as a hidden value on the page before sending the page to the clients browser. When the page is posted back to the server the server control is recreated with the state stored in viewstate.
What are the different types of Session state management options available with ASP.NET?
ASP.NET provides In-Process and Out-of-Process state management. In-Process stores the session in memory on the web server. This requires the a "sticky-server" (or no load-balancing) so that the user is always reconnected to the same web server. Out-of-Process Session state management stores data in an external data source. The external data source may be either a SQL Server or a State Server service. Out-of-Process state management requires that all objects stored in session are serializable.
What is ASP.NET?
ASP.NET is a programming framework built on the common language runtime that can be used on a server to build powerful Web applications.
How To Repair ASP.Net IIS Mapping After You Remove and Reinstall IIS?
To reassociate aspx file extensions with ASP.Net runtime, you'll have to run the utlity aspnet_regiis.exe -i
What are the Best practices for side-by-side execution of Framework 1.0 and 1.1?
In ASP.NET, applications are said to be running side by side when they are installed on the same computer, but use different versions of the .NET Framework.
How should I check whether IIS is installed or not?
To verify if IIS is installed, go to your 'Add or Remove Programs' utility in the Control panel and click on the 'Add/Remove Windows Components' in the side menu. On XP Pro and below, you should see an item called "Internet Information Services (IIS)". If this is checked, IIS should be installed. On Win2K3, you'll see "Application Server". If this is checked, select it and then click 'Details'. Another form should open which will contain "Internet Information Services (IIS)". If it is checked, IIS should be installed.
In Visual Studio .NET, how do I create a new ASP.NET application for an existing ASP.NET project?
First create an IIS application using the IIS MMC. Then in Visual Studio .NET, use the "New Project In Existing Folder" project template (at the end of the template list). It will first ask you for the project name (use the same one you created for the IIS application). Click OK button. Then enter in physical folder location.
In Visual Studio .NET, how do I create a new ASP.NET application which does not have a physical path under wwwroot?
You must first create an IIS application using the IIS MMC. Then in Visual Studio .NET, create a new ASP.NET application and give it the same name you used for the IIS application
How to Configure the ASP.NET Version to use for Each Application(developed using 1.1)?
To configure WebApp2 to use ASP.NET 1.1, follow these steps:
Click Start, and then click Run.
In the Open text box, type cmd, and then click OK.
At the command prompt, locate the following directory: WindowsDirectory\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v1.1.4322\
At the command prompt, type one of the following commands:
To Install ASP.NET 1.1 recursively aspnet_regiis -s W3SVC/1/ROOT/WebApp2
To Install ASP.NET 1.1 non-recursivelyaspnet_regiis -sn W3SVC/1/ROOT/WebApp2
Can I have VS.NET and the Visual Studio 6.0 installed on the same machine?
Yes! VS.Net works with the .Net framework, while VS6.0 works with MFC or the Windows API directly, for the most part. They can be installed and run on the same machine without any considerations.
In Visual Studio .NET, how do I create a new ASP.NET application for an existing ASP.NET project?
First create an IIS application using the IIS MMC. Then in Visual Studio .NET, use the "New Project In Existing Folder" project template (at the end of the template list). It will first ask you for the project name (use the same one you created for the IIS application). Click OK button. Then enter in physical folder location.


.NET Supported Language Sites
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J# (Microsoft)
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JNBridge
JavaScript
JScript .NET
JANET
Lego.NET
Lisp
L#
FOIL
RDNZL
leXico
LOGO
Lua.NET
M#
Mercury
Metaphor
MixNet
Mondrain
Nermerle
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Ook# .NET
Pan#
Pascal
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PerlNET
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Ruby.NET
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S#
#Smalltalk
Smalltalk and .NET
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Tachy
TickleSharp
Vulcan.NET
Zonnon