Sunday, July 9, 2017

When the unexpected derails your project, here's how to regain control by Haydn Thomas

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As project mangers we typically like to be in control. However, the reality of the situation is we certainly can not control everything. We can plan to our hearts content – but rarely does a project get executed and delivered exactly as we had planned. In this article we will explore how to handle situations that surface that are completely out of our control. Items we never dreamed to put into our Risk Management plan – or if we did - they were low priority risks and we didn’t document a risk mitigation approach. So how should we handle situations when the carpet has suddenly been pulled from underneath you and your project team members? Let’s explore four techniques to address this not-so-fun situation.
Let’s say your project is moving along just fine – not perfect – but it is well within the PMO guidelines for schedule, cost, and risk tolerances. You and your team are preparing for the next major milestone and - suddenly – the senior management team decides to put your project on “hold” because “there’s something else happening” at the executive level. You can’t bring on additional resources as planned, but you can proceed in a limited fashion with existing resources. This means you can’t work on all components of the end product because you need unique labor skilled resources to complete the product. So – how should the svelte project manager handle this situation?

1) Let’s first deal with your project team members

Ensure you communicate to your team immediately what is going on. You want them to get the news from you – not through the grapevine. They will have LOTS of questions for which you likely will not have a lot of answers. For instance – why can’t we bring on the resources as planned? When can we bring the resources on board? Does our end date get extended out? The team will likely be very frustrated with senior management actions and morale can drop significantly. If the team had been working very hard to achieve a milestone – and then management “changes the rules” and suddenly say that specific milestone is on-hold – it will deflate the team.
In this scenario – I tell the team “as much as I can” because I’ve been told the full story should not be shared with project team members until final decisions have been made at the senior management level. Be very careful in how you communicate the senior management actions to the project team. You don’t want to “throw darts” at the senior management team – instead you want to explain what is going on, why, and what the next known steps are. And then ask team members what their questions are, recommendations and ideas they have if appropriate, concerns they have, and if there’s anything else they need from you. Ensure they understand this is not a reflection of the team’s performance and thank them for working as hard as they did to achieve task completions on time with a high level of quality. They need to understand you (and senior management) do appreciate the work they have done and due to other strategic events – your project is being impacted by something out of their control.
At this point try to listen very carefully to team member reactions. Some will fall in the “who cares ‘category and will just go with the flow. Others will be extremely frustrated and won’t be focused on work activities for the near term weeks until they get a chance to “process” the situation and get re-grounded again. You’ll need to work carefully with team members that are frustrated (likely one-on-one) to talk specifically about their concerns and their emotions to determine how to best help them overcome the situation.

2) Get the team back on track emotionally

To address this issue you have to start with YOURSELF first. You need to mentally get back in the game and focus on what you CAN do as opposed what you’re not being allowed to do or what is out of your control. It’s ok to allow yourself some “detox” time – but ultimately you’ll need to move on – so your team can do the same. Once you do this – then you can get your team back on track as well.
Create a revised WBS if needed, re-do your risks, and even create revised milestone dates. You need to re-level set the plan which will enable you to re-level set your expectations too. Once you have new realistic goals to achieve – you can give the team something to focus on. Ensure you reflect on the great accomplishments the team has achieved – and be ready to move forward with the revised plan and approach.

3) Ultimately - you’ll need to let go of things you can’t control or change

This is one of those times where “letting go” is definitely in your best interest. Once you have clearly communicated to senior management the negative impact their actions are having on your project (explain the impact in terms of scope, schedule, costs and/or risks) along with your recommendations – all you can do at that point is march toward the revised plan that has been created. If you continue to hold on to the past – it will simply frustrate you – and bring the team down as well.
Even if you don’t like the revised approach to the project you’ll need to support it “publicly” which can be very difficult to do – but is essential for your project’s success. As a project manager, there are indeed some things out of our control and once we realize and accept this we can then proceed with what IS in our control which is our mindset!! Write down (for your own purposes) what is out of your control for a given project to ensure you clearly understand the things you can’t change and/or control. If you begin to get stressed about something on your “not in my control list” then let it go immediately, delegate it to someone who has the authority to address it and move on!

4) Communicate – Communicate – Communicate

When in doubt – communicate to your team what is going on and always be honest. Remember as the project manager you’re likely getting information on a daily basis – sometimes minute by minute during times like this – but your team meeting may be weekly. So in the interim – send out email updates to the team as “news breaks” so they hear it from you first – always asking them to call you if they have specific questions or concerns. Call team members one-on-one more often to touch base with them and see how they are doing. If a team member asks you a question that you can not answer without divulging confidential information senior management has shared with you – let the team member know you can’t answer their specific question right now – but when you can - you will answer their question at that time. If they need an answer because something is impacting their job – it’s your responsibility to provide them an answer (with management approval) or provide them an alternative solution to the given situation so they can move forward.
If necessary, schedule a brief 15-minute team meeting to update everyone mid-week with current project updates (especially if you want to verbally explain what is going on vs. risk communications via email which could cause some misunderstandings).
Projects rarely go as planned – that we are used to. But when things happen that are ‘bigger than us’ and beyond our control we need to take a different approach to handle the situation effectively. Items that fall into this category include: sponsorship changes initiated by senior management, company reorganization, company merger/buyouts, outsourcing, department level funding cuts, and change in corporation strategic objectives.
Remember the overall steps include:
  1. Working with your team members in a timely fashion and frequently to communicate the situation at hand
  2. Get yourself back on track – and then the project team with a revised project approach and direction
  3. Let go of things beyond your control – focus on what you CAN control
  4. Communicate changes as they surface to ensure everyone continues to be appropriately informed
Following these steps will provide you the capabilities to move you and your team forward – even in very difficult times.

How to Introduce Yourself Effectively When Networking by Jim Schibler

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When you’re at a networking event, and someone asks “What do you do?”, do you feel uncomfortable?  As you try to describe your role and your work, do you ever get the feeling that you really aren’t connecting with the person you’re meeting? Have you ever wondered why some people seem to be so good at engaging strangers effectively, and why it’s a challenge for you?
If you’re responding “yes” or even “sometimes” to the above questions, you’ve got plenty of company. Relatively few people are naturally good at establishing connections with strangers, but the good news is that anyone can learn simple techniques to get good at doing so.
Preparing yourself to answer the “What Do You Do?” question concisely, confidently, and with a clear purpose is one of the most important things you can do to to make your networking more effective. Whether you’re seeking a new job, someone to hire, a restaurant recommendation, or something else, a well-prepared self-introduction can establish rapport, communicate your value, and provide you with access to resources and assistance that you need for success.

A Typical Response, and Why It Is Not Effective

When asked “What do you do?”, most people reflexively state their job title, their employer, and sometimes the number of years they’ve done the job. There are problems with this:
  1. People interpret the meaning of a job title and the value of a particular employer based on their own knowledge, experience, and biases, and may end up with a distorted impression that deviates far from your reality.
  2. No value is conveyed by a job title alone. Some job titles may imply high status or worthwhile work, but what a person actually does is far more important than what the role is called.
  3. If you’ve done the job a long time, you may be perceived as stuck in it.
This kind of response is even less effective when an unemployed person uses it: “I was a program manager at Lockheed for 26 years”. In addition to the problems above, consider the other thoughts that likely flash through the mind of the listener:
  • You’re no longer working at Lockheed (or perhaps anywhere)
  • You’re late in your career
  • You stayed with one employer for a very long time (can be perceived as resistance to change, risk aversion, not valuable enough to be recruited elsewhere, etc.)
  • Your learning probably slowed down years ago
  • Your employer didn’t value you enough to retain you
Wow! That’s a lot of negative stuff that certainly doesn’t help you build rapport. Also, leading with your job title and your employer can be risky: the listener may already have negative opinions about your job title and/or your employer, whether that opinion is based on facts or mere perceptions.

The Key to a Successful Self-Introduction: Convey Value Quickly

To effectively engage a person you’re meeting, you need to capture interest, and the best way to do that is to quickly convey value. You can pique interest with a provocative remark (“I get paid to destroy things”), or an unexpected juxtaposition (“I dig high-tech ditches”), but you need to quickly communicate how what you do for a living creates value for others. The most effective self-introductions are general enough to be used with anyone, specific enough to position you as unique, and good at creating a personal, emotional connection to the story you’re telling.

A Simple Framework for an Effective Self-Introduction (“Personal Pitch”)

With a little preparation and practice, anyone can deliver a self-introduction that captures interest of most people. I recommend a 60-90 second introduction based on a simple 3-part framework:
  • PRESENT: State what you do that creates value.
  • PAST: Cite an impressive achievement you accomplished.
  • FUTURE: Outline what you want, and ask for input.
What you say about the past is very important for conveying your value, but you don’t want to spend much of your limited time there. Keep your emphasis on the present and the future, and people will tend to perceive you as current and forward-looking.
Let’s unpack each of these three parts a little more.

PRESENT: What I do that creates value

Rather than stating your job title, figure out the essence of what you do, for whom you do it, and the value that it brings. Instead of saying “I’m an attorney”, say “I keep companies out of trouble by guiding them safely through the complexities of international licensing laws.”  Use the present tense, even if you’re between jobs; you want to convey that this is what you do. Look for an outcome that anyone can appreciate, and try to develop a ‘hook’ that gets attention and makes you memorable. The best ‘hooks’ create a personal, emotional connection to the story.

PAST: An accomplishment that proves my value

This brief reference to the past contains a proof statement that drives home the value of what you do. It typically starts with “For example, at [employer], I…”, and ends with an impressive accomplishment. Focus on a brief, concrete example with significant positive outcome, and quantitate whenever feasible (money, people, time, etc.). “For example, at Cisco, I put together a team of 5 people that increased profit margins by 7% and yielded annual savings of $980 million by negotiating better deals with our second-tier suppliers.”
Watch your audience carefully; if your proof statement is effective, you’ll get a visible reaction (“Wow”, “That’s impressive”, eyebrows raised, etc.). The reaction is typically unconscious – it’s triggered automatically by the impact of what you’ve just said. That’s the moment you know that value has been recognized, and that’s the time to move on to your future.

FUTURE: What I’m now seeking

This is, for you, the most important part of your self-introduction, and yet many people fail to follow through with it. Here, your goal is to capitalize on the goodwill you just established by conveying value, and use it to get what you need from your networking contacts. You’re going to make a request. For it to be effective, you need to be clear about what you want, and you need to ask in a way that does not allow your question to be easily dismissed.
The basic format for this part is a statement or two that paints a picture of what you want, followed by open-ended questions (ones that can’t be answered Yes or No). “What I’m looking for now is a sales role in construction equipment or supplies. Which companies come to mind? If you were me, how would you go about finding other companies like that? Who do you know in the construction industry?”
Your contacts will probably have to think for a moment; allow them a little time to do so. If it becomes clear that they just aren’t going to come up with anything, try stimulating some additional ideas by asking additional open questions, or mentioning some of the targets or resources you’re already considering. Most often, people will come up with a couple of suggestions, contacts, or ideas to help you. Thank them for their efforts, and be sure to reciprocate by asking how you can help them.
Phrasing your questions in an open-ended form is extremely important. If you ask “Do you know anyone working at GE?”, the answer can be a simple “No”, and the conversation falls flat. If you instead ask “Who do you know who works at GE?” or “How could I get introduced to people working at GE?”, you keep the conversation flowing, and you can steer it to where you need to go next. To make sure you’re asking open-ended questions, avoid starting with “Do” or “Can”, and instead start with words like “Who”, “What”, “Where”, “When”, “Why”, “How”, and “Which”.

Examples of Effective Personal Pitches

Let’s see how the framework works when applied to various situations:

1.    Our “Lockheed Lifer” (mentioned earlier in this article)

“I lead teams that get payloads up into orbit safely, reliably, and at lowest cost. For example, at Lockheed, I led the team that placed the GPS satellites that your phone or car navigation system use to tell you where you are and how to get where you want to go." [Wow, cool!]  "Currently, I’m looking for an opportunity to lead another engineering team that’s doing challenging work, not necessarily in the aerospace realm. What kinds of interesting projects have you heard about that I should check into?"

2.    Electronics tester

“I keep your electronic equipment from going up in flames. I verify that it complies with regulations for electrical safety, for radio-frequency compliance (so that it doesn’t interfere with cell phones or navigation on a plane), and for environmental responsibility (so your grandkids will inherit a better world). At Toshiba, I cut the time required for certification from 8 weeks down to 4, so we got product out to market a month earlier."  [Huh! That’s impressive.]  “I just moved to the area to work for a smaller, US-based company, and I’m trying to find a good real estate agent. Who would you or your friends recommend?”

3.    Molecular biologist

“I modify micro-organisms to produce useful products. An algal strain I developed produced a cooking oil with better properties than olive oil, and another strain produced a biodiesel fuel that powered two unmodified Volkswagen cars for a year with no issues.” [Wow, cool!] “My company is looking for investors. Who do you know who might be interested? Where could I go to meet potential investors?”

4.    Horizontal driller

“I dig high-tech ditches. You know how you feel when they bring out the backhoes, dig up your street to lay cable, and slap some asphalt on top? I do the job a better way. I punch a small hole at each end of the street, drill horizontally between them, and get the cables pulled below without messing up the nice surface of your street." [Wow, that’s cool.]  "I’m certified on the Ditch Witch horizontal driller and I’ve got my Class A license, and I’d like to live up in the Sacramento area. I’m talking with AT&T and ComCast already; who else might be laying cables?”

5.    HR benefits manager

“I balance the needs of employees and companies by structuring benefits packages that satisfy employees while keeping costs under control. When Western Digital bought SanDisk, I reconciled the differences between their benefit plans, and when PayPal split off from EBay, I customized the new plans to fit each company’s needs. [Huh – you’ve done some big projects with name-brand companies!]  I’d like to transition into a consulting role that won’t require me to fight through commute traffic each day, since I live 30 miles away. Who do you know who works as a consultant? How could I learn more about the pros and cons of consulting?"

Develop and Practice Your Own Personal Pitch!

Any job can be made interesting if you can uncover the underlying, relatable value of the work you do. You may not find it easy to deliver your pitch at first, but it will get easier and more natural with practice.
Clearly, being ready with a good personal pitch can turn networking from an awkward and uncomfortable experience into a productive and even enjoyable activity. To keep it productive, you must remember to finish with a clear request, and to reciprocate by finding out what you’ll do for the person you’re meeting.
The benefits of developing a good pitch go beyond networking, though. As you discover the value you offer that makes people react positively, you’ll feel better about yourself and your work, and you’ll get more confident about asking for information that will help you move forward.
That same value that gets people to react should help you identify your core value proposition, and guide you in the development of a compelling summary for your résumé and LinkedIn profile.
A good personal pitch is also an excellent way to handle one of the most common questions asked at the start of interviews: “Tell me about yourself.” You’re not being asked for a full biography; you’re being asked to summarize why you’re there. If you respond with a concise encapsulation of your value, a brief and compelling proof statement, and a clear picture of what you what and how that fits, your interviewer will be impressed and pleased.

Getting Beyond Discomfort

Some people I’ve coached have felt uncomfortable with the concept of the personal pitch; they feel that talking about accomplishments is bragging, or trying to sell people something that’s not of interest to them.
It’s important to remember that people you meet at networking events want to know something about you (after all, they asked!), and they don’t want to be bored. There’s nothing wrong about answering their question in a way that keeps them interested and engaged, as long as you’re telling the truth. In fact, if you develop a good pitch, you’ll be doing them a favor, because you won’t be putting them in the awkward position of having to find a way to break away from you before a meaningful connection is made.
Another way to get past discomfort is to be the first to ask. Learn about the people you’re meeting, and offer them things that could help them: information, contacts, content, feedback, etc. This positions you as a giver rather than a hard-selling taker, and will make people more inclined to connect with you.  It also gives you information you can use to fine-tune your personal pitch for the current situation. And finally, there’s nothing wrong with letting people develop some curiosity about you, which will get them to eventually ask “So what do you do?”
Now you know how to respond.

Saturday, June 24, 2017

Follow these meeting tips and others will thank you (guide+checklist) by Dmitriy Nizhebetskiy

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Meetings can be a time suck. Though they're needed, the average meeting results in poor results. I've worked at progressive and mindful organisations where managers still wasted thousands of dollars putting people together for hours.
Nevertheless, I'm invited to meaningless meetings way too often. If you're as tired as I am of useless meetings, here are some ways to prepare for a more effective meeting next time.  

1. Prepare Meeting Agenda

Skipping this step is tempting. There is always a feeling that you can just walk into the room and give a speech that will mobilise and engage all participants. 
However, it doesn’t work this way.
You need to plan before you act. Conversations tend to derail very quickly. The only way to stick to the point is to have an agenda.
If a meeting is not worth writing an agenda – then it is not important enough to waste time on.
Besides the main topic you need to discuss, there are always some additional points in an agenda.
It is like a scope creep.
You need to identify everything that will be talked about. They will take up time. For example, an introduction of new attendees, voting for the best idea, assigning action items, etc.

2. Set a Time Limit

A meeting should be strictly time-boxed, otherwise, it will take as much time as possible. Always keep in mind the Parkinson’s law: it should start and end at the scheduled time.
I would suggest you never delay the start of a meeting. By delaying a meeting, you support latecomers. On the other hand, those who always come on time are penalised by waiting.
What's the real story?
Keep in mind that some people might have other meetings scheduled. By finishing your meeting later, you can put them into troubles. They will have to either leave your meeting and miss the conclusions, which is the most important part, or they will have to come late for their next meeting.
The worst thing happens when a delay of one meeting creates a cascading delay for all meetings for the day.

3. Set the Purpose For Each Meeting

Each meeting should have a goal, whether it's to brainstorm a list of ideas, make a decision or sync up the status of a project. 
The goal should be whatever it is that you need to achieve within allocated time. If you don’t have a purpose clearly defined, then any outcome will suit you. Why waste your time?
When your time is up, and you do not reach the purpose – the meeting is failed. Time is wasted.

4. Choose Participants Wisely

There is a limit of persons for a meeting. Beyond that number, any meeting is a waste of time.
Depending on the purpose of a meeting the number varies. I would say 7-10 people for a meeting is a maximum.
The number may be higher for meetings where you just need to transfer some information. Sure, there may be many stakeholders for your project, but it doesn’t mean that you need to invite them simply because they are on the list.
The main idea is to choose people who can add value to the meeting or decision.
For most of the cases, it is unwise to call management, customer or sponsor for brainstorming meetings, for example.
Sometimes they do want to participate and contribute. But in most cases, they are interested in refined information. You should use their time for decision making based on the options you generated before.
That is why it is so important to define a purpose for a meeting. And it is best when there is only one goal.

5. Define Responsibility and Your Expectation for Each Participant

Have you ever wondered how a person can decline an invitation for a meeting? It is easy when you are a boss and too busy. Then you just do not show up. What about the peers?
You can check it yourself.
Take a look at last ten meetings you were invited to. Hopefully, there is an agenda there. But I can bet that there is at least one meeting you can’t tell why you had to participate.
And definitely, there was uncertainty on your side.
Were you invited just because you are on the email list, or you are a part of the team? Or do they expect some expertise from your side?
Whenever you call someone to your meeting, explicitly state your expectations. What do you want from a person? Why should he join a meeting?
If you are not telling them your expectations you are just bossing. You order them to comply. Without questioning you.
Always give them a choice to quit.
If they decide not to come to your meeting. If they don’t think they can help. If they don’t want to help you. If they don’t want even to try. They will be of no use for you when forced into your meeting.
Buy their support. Let THEM choose to help you.
David Grady has a lot to say on this point.

6. Provide All Relevant Information Before a Meeting

So you want to discuss something important. Or you seek for expertise. In any case, provide any background information beforehand. Give enough time to analyse any documentation, ideas, your meeting agenda and your expectations.
The purpose of a meeting is to sync up, to brainstorm, or to make a decision. Do not waste time on anything that can be done personally. Reading documents out loud during meetings is unprofessional. Everyone can read.
You must state your expectations. You expect them you come prepared for a meeting. You expect to produce solutions not describe a problem.

7. Schedule Meetings Beforehand

How does it feel when someone invites you to an hour-long meeting with a five minutes notice? And you were about to have lunch? Bad.
Don’t do it.
I know there are sometimes “urgent” meetings. But I don’t believe in them. They introduce a lot of stress and rarely deliver any value. These are not effective team meetings.
If you need to mobilize your team set up a short meeting, where you introduce the problem. Then plan consequent meetings to brainstorm the solutions. After people had time to think it through.

8. Come on Time

Does this even have to be a separate point? I’m afraid, it does.
Come on time. Start a meeting on time. Finish a meeting on time. That is a framework of an effective team meeting.

9. Lead the meeting, Stick To Agenda and Timeline

Despite all your previous efforts, it will be a mess unless you lead and control the meeting.
It takes an exceptional level of professionalism, culture and ethics to respect everyone’s time. I don’t think you can demand it. Like anything related to the “respect”, you have to earn it. So do not assume that everyone will behave to your standard. Be ready to lead.
What does it mean?
You need to spend every minute of a meeting purposefully. Take the lead and introduce newcomers. If everyone is familiar with each other, skip it. Give an honest “Thank you for coming” and get to the point.
Respect their time.
Quickly remind the agenda and the purpose of the meeting. State what you expect to be a successful outcome. It should take less than a minute. Otherwise, you planned too much to discuss.
Now keep to the agenda.
Drag the conversation back to the point. Track time you allocated for each point of the agenda.
When you lead a meeting, it takes some courage to keep everyone focused. It is your meeting, your plan. You need to be confident enough to restrain superiors and peers. Just be respectful. If they have some cool idea, propose them to discuss it after the meeting.
Always keep in mind that you need some time at the end of a meeting. It is crucial. See next point.
But what if time runs out. And your have not achieved meeting goals? Finish this one in time and schedule another one. If it happens this way, you underestimated the problem. Or you discover something new and important.
Plan again, then act.

10. Assign Deliverables and Deadlines

Even if the purpose of your meeting is a single decision, there is delivery. It is meeting notes. Someone have to inform others about the decision and log it.
In most cases, your meetings will end up with next steps to keep wheels turning – the action items.
It is best when all action items produce deliverables. Just like everything in project management. You need results.
Therefore, describe deliverables (next meeting, a report, a plan, etc.), assign one responsible person for each one, set and agreed upon the deadlines. Document it in the meeting notes.
Michael Hyatt has a good format for action items.

11. Document and Publish Meeting Notes

If you are leading the meeting, it is OK to delegate writing meeting notes to someone else. State one responsible person who must do that.
Nevertheless, it is your responsibility to deliver the meeting notes.
Always invite others to add or correct your meeting notes. You may miss something. Others may have understood it differently. It is a good way to avoid miscommunication. Just let everyone comfortable to correct you.


I like the idea of a monetary value of a decision made at a meeting.
It is simple.
In fact, it is a timer that shows the cost of a meeting in dollars. Calculations are easy. You need to know hourly rates of all participant and multiply them by the hours you spent to produce a decision. When a meeting is over, you will see how much a decision costs.
Do the exercise several times. You will find that your team meetings are golden. It is to say nothing about demotivation and disengagement effect. I bet you will want to have effective meetings after that.