Saturday, November 26, 2011

SharePoint 2010 interview questions


Reference Links (Part-1) (Part-2)

SharePoint 2010 developer interview questions

Q. How does Client object model works?

Ans. When we use SharePoint client API’s to perform a specific task, the SharePoint Foundation 2010 managed client object model bundles up these uses of the API into XML and sends it to the server that runs SharePoint Foundation. The server receives this request, and makes appropriate calls into the object model on the server, collects the responses, forms them into JavaScript Object Notation (JSON), and sends that JSON back to the SharePoint Foundation 2010 managed client object model. The client object model parses the JSON and presents the results to the application as .NET Framework objects (or ECMAScript objects for ECMAScript).

Q. How many types of Client Object model extension are available in 2010 and when would you use one or the other.

Ans. To develop rich client side solutions, three set of client-side APIs has been introduced in the Microsoft.SharePoint.Client namespace. The three APIs are targeted for three different types of clients.
1. .net Managed applications – These are used when we have to create console applications or window applications, web applications which are not running inside SharePoint Contex.
2. For Silverlight applications
3. ECMAScript – It is a client object model extension for using with JavaScript or JScript. This is used for creating applications which are hosted inside SharePoint. For example, web part deployed in SharePoint site can use this JavaScript API for accessing SharePoint from browser using JavaScript.

Q. What is difference between Load() and LoadQuery() methods ?

Ans. Load method populates the client object directly with what it gets data from the server i.e. a collection object like ListItemCollection etc. but LoadQuery returns the data as a completely new collection in  IEnumerable format. Other major difference is that the Collections that you load using the Load() method are eligible for garbage collection only when the client context variable itself goes out of scope where as, in  these collections go out of scope at the end of  IEnumerable<List> list.

Q. How can you write efficient and better performing client object applications ?

Ans. You can always use Lambda expressions in your queries to return only specific properties that will be used in your block. You can also use LoadQuery() method and specify multiple levels of properties to load for e.g. while returning specific properties of the lists using LoadQuery(), you can also specify the fields to return from each list to optimize the data access.

Q. What are the Authentication methods for your client object model application ?

Ans. Basically there are three (3) authentication options you can use when you’re working with the Client Object Model in SharePoint 2010:

* Anonymous
* Default
* FormsAuthentication

You can specify clientContext.Authentication = Anonymous\Default\FormsAuthentication, If you do not choose an authentication method in your code, the application will default to using the client’s Windows Credentials (DefaultCredentials).

Q. How do you access ECMAScript object model API’s ?

Ans. The ECMAScript library is available in a number of JS files in the LAYOUTS folder. The main file among number of .js files is SP.js. When you include this file in the APSX page using a ScriptLink control, all other required JS files are loaded automatically. By linking SP.js to your page, the SP namespace gets registered. SP is the SharePoint namespace that contains all objects. For debugging purposes every js file also has a ‘debug’ equivalent in the same folder.

Q. What is the purpose of calling clientContext.ExecuteQuery() ?

Ans. ExecuteQuery gives you the option to minimize the number of roundtrips to the server from your client code. All the components loaded into the clientcontext are executed in one go.

Q. Why would you use LINQ over CAML for data retrieval?

Ans. Unlike CAML, with LINQ to SharePoint provider, you are working with strongly typed list item objects. For example, an item in the Announcements list is an object of type Announcement and an item on a Tasks list is an object of type Task. You can then enumerate the objects and get the properties for your use. Also, you can use LINQ syntax and the LINQ keywords built into C# and VB for LINQ queries.

Q. Can we use our custom master page with the application pages in SharePoint 2010 ?

Ans. With 2010, you can now set whether the pages under _Layouts use the same Master Page as the rest of your site. You can enable or disable this functionality through the web application settings in Central Administration. This however, is not applicable to your custom application pages. If you want your custom applictaion page to inherit the site master page you must derive it from Microsoft.SharePoint.WebControls.LayoutsPageBase class.

Q. What are WebTemplates and Site Definitions ?

Ans. Site definitions consist primarily of multiple XML and ASPX files stored on a front-end Web server in folders under the %ProgramFiles%\Common Files\Microsoft Shared\web server extensions\14\TEMPLATE\SiteTemplates directory.
Custom Web templates on the other hand, are stored in the database, and are created using an existing site, with or without its specific content, as a model. This provides a means for reusing sites that you have customized.In some ways, Web templates continue to depend, throughout their lifecycle, on the site definition that is their ultimate foundation.

Q. How do you write to SharePoint ULS logs in 2010 ?

Ans. In SharePoint Foundation, ULS exposes configurable settings in two ways, through the – Object model and Windows PowerShell cmdlets. For writing to SharePoint ULS logs developers can can use Diagnostics Service, which will make the customized categories viewable in the administrative UI for our errors.
or they can use the number of cmdlets available for accessing ULS logs using powershell. Some of the cmdlets are Get-SPDiagnosticConfig ,Get-SPLogEvent etc.

Q. What does CMDUI.XML contain?

Ans. The definitions for the out-of-the-box ribbon elements are split across several files in the SharePoint root, with TEMPLATE\GLOBAL\XML\CMDUI.XML being the main one.

Q. What has Changed in SharePoint 2010 Object model?

Ans. Microsoft has replaced the “12 hive” structure that we had in SharePoint 2007 with “14 Hive” structure in 2010.

It has apparently added four new folders to its hive.

The Folders are :
* Policy
* UserCode
* WebClients
* WebServices

Q. How would you deploy WebPart Using Windows PowerShell?

Ans. At the Windows PowerShell command prompt (PS C:\>), type the below command :

Install -SPWebPartPack -LiteralPath “FullPathofCabFile” -Name “Nameof WebPart”

Q. How would you re-deploy the old custom solutions in SharePoint 2010.What Changes are needed to the old Solution files.

Ans. SharePoint 2010 object model contains many changes and enhancements, but our custom code will still compile and, will run as expected. You should however, rewrite and recompile any code that refers to files and resources in “12 hive”.
For Details See :
SharePoint Object Model – Backward Compatibility

Q. How would you add a link in the Ribbon?

Ans. You can add any link or Custom Action under any of the existing tabs of the ribbon or can create a new a new tab and place your links under it.

Q. What does CMDUI.XML contain?

Ans. The definitions for the out-of-the-box ribbon elements are split across several files in the SharePoint root, with TEMPLATE\GLOBAL\XML\CMDUI.XML being the main one.

Q. What are the Disadvantages of Using LINQ in your Code?

Ans. LINQ translates the LINQ queries into Collaborative Application Markup Language (CAML) queries thus adding an extra step for retrieving the items.

Q. What is different with SharePoint 2010 workflows ?

Ans. Some of the additions in workflow model are :

1. SharePoint 2010 workflows are build upon the the workflow engine provide .Net Framework 3.5.

2. In addition to the SharePoint lists we can now create workflows for SharePoint sites as well.

3. SharePoint Designer 2010 also has a new graphical workflow designer for designing workflows and deploying them directly to SharePoint.

4. Another Improvement in SharePoint Designer 2010 is that it now allows you to edit the out-of-the-box workflows that come with SharePoint.

Q. How does Ribbon works ?

Ans. A file called CMDUI.XML stays at the web front end which contains the Out-of-Box site wide Ribbon implementation i.e. all the Ribbon UI for the entire site. In addition to this you have a CustomAction for each ribbon component. These CustomActions have CommandUIExtentions block which has CommandUIDefinitions and CommandUIHandlers which make up the activity of the ribbon component. So, when the ribbon is loaded the CommandUIDefinition merges with Out-of-Box definition in the CMDUI.XML

Q. How will you use WebParts or other solutions Created in SharePoint 2007 in SharePoint 2010 ?

Ans. In SharePoint 2010 the 12 hive is now replaced by 14 hive, So we will rewrite and recompile any code that refers to files and resources in “12″ hive. In addition to we must recompile custom code written for Windows SharePoint Services 3.0 and Office SharePoint Server 2007 that does not run on IIS.

Q. What is the advantage in using Windows PowerShell over stsadm in SharePoint 2010 ?

Ans. Unlike stsadm, which accept and return text, Windows PowerShell is built on the Microsoft .NET Framework and accepts and returns .NET Framework objects.Windows PowerShell also gives you access to the file system on the computer and enables you to access other data stores, such as the registry and the digital signature certificate stores etc..

Q. What is REST ? How is it used in SharePoint 2010 ?

Ans. REST (Representational State transfer) is a protocol (powered by ADO.NET services) which is used for getting data out of sharepoint via Url. It is mostly used to access data from sharepoint even when you are not in the sharepoint context.

Q. What datatype is retured by REST ?

Ans. REST does not return an object of type SharePoint Site\List. Instead, it returns an XML output.

Q. What is a workflow?

Ans. Workflows are the way an organization functions, a series of actions that correspond to a work process, such as the process for purchase orders.SharePoint 2010 helps you automate these workflows, thereby increasing the efficiency and productivity of the organization.

Q. What are the types of workflow that you can design in SharePoint 2010.

Ans. you can design List Workflows, Reusable List Workflows and Site workflows using SharePoint designer 2010.

Q. What Reusable List Workflows and Site workflows ?


Reusable List Workflows -

You can create a reusable list workflow (reusable workflow) in the top-level site in the site collection, and that workflow can be made globally reusable — meaning that the workflow can be associated to any list, library, or content type in the site collection. You can also create a reusable workflow in any subsite in the site collection; this workflow is available for reuse in that particular subsite.

Site workflows - A site workflow is associated to a site — not to a list, library, or content type. So unlike most workflows, a site workflow is not running on a specific list item. Because of this, many of the actions that are available for items not available for site workflows.

Q. Can you modify the Out-of-Box workflows in SharePoint 2010 ?

Ans. In SharePoint 2010, you have an option to customize the Out-of-Box workflows. The four most popular workflows in SharePoint Server 2007 — the Approval, Collect Feedback, Collect Signatures, Publishing Approval workflows — have been completely rebuilt as declarative reusable workflows, meaning that they are now fully customizable in SharePoint Designer 2010.

Q. What are events, actions, conditions and steps?

Ans. Lets look at this one by one.

Events - An event is what starts or initiates a workflow. Events can also be used to manage the timing of actions within a workflow, such as waiting for the status of an item to change. There are three events that can start a workflow:

* An item is created.
* An item is changed.
* A workflow participant clicks a start button on the SharePoint site.

Actions –
An action is the most basic unit of work in a workflow. SharePoint Designer 2010 provides a set of ready-made, reusable actions for you to incorporate into your workflow.

For example, your workflow can:

* Create, copy, change, or delete list items (including documents).
* Check items in or out.
* Send an e-mail message.

Conditions - When you design a workflow, you can use the workflow editor to create rules that apply conditional logic to SharePoint sites, lists, items and content types. A rule establishes a condition where the workflow performs the associated action only if that condition is true. For example, you can create a rule where the workflow sends a reviewer an e-mail message only if an item is created by a specific person.

Q. What are Parallel and Serial actions ?

Ans. When you have more than one action associated with a condition, the actions can be set up to run at the same time (parallel) or one after another (serial), the default.

Q. What are the Types of forms associated with the workflow ?

Ans. With SharePoint Designer 2010, you can create three types of workflow forms:

Initiation form – An initiation form gathers information from the workflow participant when they start the workflow. It is automatically generated when you create the workflow in SharePoint Designer 2010. Initiation forms are displayed to users when they manually start a workflow on a given SharePoint item. With an initiation form, users can specify additional parameters or information about the workflow as it applies to the given SharePoint item.

Task form –
A custom task form allows workflow participants to interact with tasks in the Tasks list specified for the workflow. With the Custom Task Wizard, you can easily create custom form fields and add them to a custom task form. When you finish designing the workflow, SharePoint Designer 2010 automatically generates the InfoPath or ASP.NET forms for your custom tasks.

Reusable workflow – association form – A reusable workflow, by default, only provides the fields common to all items, such as Created and Modified by. This is because a reusable workflow isn’t by default associated with a list, library, or content type. An association form enables you to associate fields with a reusable workflow so that the fields will be available when you design and run the workflow.

Q. When are these forms get created ? And how do you customize it ?

Ans. SharePoint Designer 2010 automatically generates the forms, but you can customize them by going to the settings page for the workflow, in the Forms section, click the form you want to customize. Workflow forms are either InfoPath or ASP.NET pages. They are stored on the SharePoint site with the workflow source files.

SharePoint 2010 Interview Questions – IT Pro / Architect

Basic Intro SharePoint Architecture Questions

1) What are Web Applications in SharePoint?

An IIS Web site created and used by SharePoint 2010. Saying an IIS virtual server is also an acceptable answer.

2) What is an application pool?

A group of one or more URLs that are served by a particular worker process or set of worker processes.

3) Why are application pools important?

They provide a way for multiple sites to run on the same server but still have their own worker processes and identity.

4) What are zones?

Different logical paths (URLs meaning) of gaining access to the same SharePoint Web application.

5) What are Web Application Policies?

Enables security policy for users at the Web application level, rather than at the site collection or site level. Importantly, they override all other security settings.

6) What is a site collection?

A site collection contains a top-level website and can contain one or more sub-sites web sites that have the same owner and share administration settings.

7) What are content databases?

A content database can hold all the content for one or more site collections.

8) What is a site?

A site in SharePoint contains Web pages and related assets such as lists, all hosted within a site collection.

9) What are My Sites?

Specialized SharePoint sites personalized and targeted for each user.

10) What is the difference between Classic mode authentication and Claims-based authentication?

As the name implies, classic authentication supports NT authentication types like Kerberos, NTLM, Basic, Digest, and anonymous. Claims based authentication uses claims identities against a against a trusted identity provider.

11) When would you use claims, and when would you use classic?

Classic is more commonly seen in upgraded 2007 environments whereas claims are the recommended path for new deployments.

12) Describe the potential components for both a single server, and multiple servers, potentially several tiered farms:

A single-server SharePoint Server 2010 environment leverages a built-in SQL Server 2008 Express database. The problems with this environment is scalability, not being able to install the with built-in database on a domain controller, the database cannot be larger than 4 GB, and you cannot use User Profile Synchronization in a single server with built-in database installation.

An example of a multiple tier farm would be a three-tier topology, considered one of the more efficient physical and logical layouts to supports scaling out or scaling up and provides better distribution of services across the member servers of the farm. This is considered a good architecture since one can add Web servers to the Web tier, add app servers to the application tier, and add database servers to the database tier.

SharePoint Backup and Restore Questions

13) What are some of the tools that can be used when backing up a SharePoint 2010 environment?

· SharePoint farm backup and recovery

· SQL Server

· System Center Data Protection Manager


14) What Microsoft tool can be used for incremental backups?

System Center Data Protection Manager

Managed Metadata Questions

15) What is Managed Metadata?

Managed metadata is a hierarchical collection of centrally managed terms that you can define, and then use as attributes for items.

16) What are Terms and Term Sets?

A term is a word or a phrase that can be associated with an item.  A term set is a collection of related terms.

17) How do Terms And Term Sets relate to Managed Metadata?

Managed metadata is a way of referring to the fact that terms and term sets can be created and managed independently from the columns themselves.

18) Are there different types of Term Sets?

There are Local Term Sets and Global Term Sets, one created within the context of a site collection and the other created outside the context of a site collection, respectively.

19) How are terms created and used?

There are several ways; however the most common is to use the Term Store Management Tool.

20) How is Managed Metadata, and the related Term technology used?

Through the UI, the most common use is through the managed metadata list column which allows you to specify the term set to use. It also related to searching and enhancing the user search experience.

Sandbox Solutions Questions

21) What is a sandboxed solution?

Components that are deployed to run within the sandboxed process rather than running in the production Internet Information Services (IIS) worker process.

22) What are some examples of things that might run within the SharePoint sandbox?

Any of the following are acceptable answers:

Web Parts
Event receivers
Feature receivers
Custom Microsoft SharePoint Designer workflow activities
Microsoft InfoPath business logic


23) Why are sandboxed solutions used?

Primarily because they promote high layers of isolation. By default they run within a rights-restricted, isolated process based around Code Access Security (CAS). Isolation is possible to increase with activities like running the sandboxing service on only specific SharePoint 2010 servers.

SharePoint Search Questions

24) What is a content source in relation to SharePoint search? What’s the minimum amount of content sources?

A content source is a set of options that you can use to specify what type of content is crawled, what URLs to crawl, and how deep and when to crawl. You must create at least one content source before a crawl can occur.

25) What is a search scope?

A search scope defines a subset of information in the search index. Users can select a search scope when performing a search.

26) What is a federated location with SharePoint search?

Federated locations provide information that exists outside of your internal network to your end-users.

27) How does managed metadata affect search?

Enhances the end-user search experience by mapping crawled properties to managed properties. Managed properties show up in search results and help users perform more successful queries.

28)  What is query logging in SharePoint 2010?

Collects information about user search queries and search results that users select on their computers to improve the relevancy of search results and to improve query suggestions.

29) What authentication type does the SharePoint crawler use?

The crawl component requires access to content using NTLM authentication.

Services Architecture Questions

30) Please describe what a Service Application is in SharePoint 2010.

Service applications in SharePoint 2010 are a set of services that can possibly be shared across Web applications. Some of these services may or may not be shared across the SharePoint 2010 farm. The reason these applications are shared is the overall reduction of resources required to supply the functionality these services cultivate.

31) Please provide an example of one of these service applications.

Any of the below are acceptable answers:

Access Services
Business Data Connectivity service
Excel Services Application
Managed Metadata service
PerformancePoint Service Application
Search service
Secure Store Service
State service
Usage and Health Data Collection service
User Profile service
Visio Graphics Service
Web Analytics service
Word Automation Services
Microsoft SharePoint Foundation Subscription Settings Service

32) What are Service Application Groups used for?

Just provides a logical grouping of services that are scoped to a particular Web Application.

33) How are Service Applications deployed in terms of IIS (Internet Information Services)?

They are provisioned as a single Internet Information Services (IIS) Web site.

34) Explain how connections are managed with Service Applications.

A virtual entity is used that is referred to as a proxy, due to label in PowerShell.

35) What are some common examples of SharePoint 2010 services architectures, and what are the advantages of each design?

The three most popular designs are single farms with either a single service application group or multiple service application groups, or Enterprise services farms.

Single farms with a single service application group are generally the most common, and have the advantages of easy deployment, simple service application allocation, effective resource utilization and cohesive management.

Single farms with multiple service application groups is less common, and have the advantage of potential individual management of service applications as well as allowing data isolation, and while being more complex to deploy and maintain allows targeting of sites to particular service applications.

Enterprise Service Farms is pretty uncommon as it is a complete farm dedicated to Service Applications but promotes autonomous management and high levels of data isolation.

36) Are there any other type of relevant service architectures?

Depending on the environment requirements, a specialized farm can also be used in order to deploy specific services tailored to the organizational requirements which can aid in scaling out and conservation of resources.

37) What is the User Profile service?

Allows configuring and managing User profile properties, Audiences, Profile synchronization settings, organization browsing and management settings, and My Site settings.

38) What are User Profiles?

Aggregates properties from diverse identity content sources together to create unified and consistent profiles across an organization, used throughout the SharePoint environment.

39) What is Excel Services?

Allows sharing, securing, managing, and using Excel 2010 workbooks in a SharePoint Server Web site or document library. Excel Services consists of the Excel Calculation Services (ECS), Microsoft Excel Web Access (EWA), and Excel Web Services (EWS) components.

40) What is PerformancePoint Services?

Allows users to monitor and analyze a business by building dashboards, scorecards, and key performance indicators (KPIs).

41) What is Visio Services?

Allows users to share and view Microsoft Visio Web drawings. The service also enables data-connected Microsoft Visio 2010 Web drawings to be refreshed and updated from various data sources.

42) What is Access Services?

Allows users to edit, update, and create linked Microsoft Access 2010 databases that can be viewed and manipulated by using an internet browser, the Access client, or a linked HTML page.

43) What is the Secure Store Service (SSS)?

A secure database for storing credentials that are associated with application IDs

44) What is Content Deployment?

Content deployment enables you to copy content from a source site collection to a destination site collection.

Backup / DR Questions

45) Describe how redundancy can be built into a SharePoint environment. Please be specific in regards to any auxiliary components.

Multiple front-end web servers (WFE’s) can be deployed and correlated through Windows NLB or anything approach. Application servers can be deployed into the farm for a variety of purposes, depending on organizational requirements. Databases can be clustered or mirrored, again depending on requirements and environment.

46) From a basic standpoint, what is the difference between SQL clustering and mirroring?

Clustering provides a failover scenario whereby one or more nodes can be swapped as active depending on whether a node goes down. In mirroring, transactions are sent directly from a principal database and server to a mirror database to establish essentially a replica of the database.

Governance Questions

47) What Is Governance in terms of SharePoint 2010?

Governance is the set of policies, roles, responsibilities, and processes that guide, direct, and control how an organization’s business divisions and IT teams cooperate to achieve business goals.

48) What are some useful, OOB features of SharePoint that aid with governance of an environment?

Any of the below are acceptable answers. There are some others but these are the major ones that I generally look for from a candidate:

Site templates – consistent branding, site structure, and layout can be enforce a set of customizations that are applied to a site definition.

Quotas – limits to the amount of storage a site collection can use.

Locks - prevent users from either adding content to a site collection or using the site collection.

Web application permissions and policies – comprehensive security settings that apply to all users and groups for all site collections within a Web application.

Self-service site creation - enables users to create their own site collections, thus must be incorporated into a governance scheme.

Monitoring Questions

49) Describe the monitoring features that are baked into SharePoint 2010.

Diagnostic logging captures data about the state of the system, whereas health and usage data collection uses specific timer jobs to perform monitoring tasks, collecting information about:

· Performance Counter Fata

· Event Log Data

· Timer Service Data

· Metrics For Site Collections and Sites

· Search Usage Data

General Workflow Questions

50) What is a declarative workflow? Can non-authenticated users participate in workflows?

Workflows created by using Microsoft SharePoint Designer 2010, the default setting enables deployment of declarative workflows. Yes, however you do not give non-authorized users access to the site. The e-mail message and attachments sent from notifications might contain sensitive information

Q. What is 14 hive in SharePoint?
See SharePoint 2010 Object Model

Q. How would you re-deploy the old custom solutions in SharePoint 2010.What Changes are needed to the old Solution files.
SharePoint 2010 object model contains many changes and enhancements, but our custom code will still compile and, will run as expected. You should however, rewrite and recompile any code that refers to files and resources in "12 hive".
For Details See :
See SharePoint 2010 Object Model - Backward Compatibility

Q. How many types of Client Object model extension are available in 2010 and when would you use one or the other.
To develop rich client side solutions, three set of client-side APIs has been introduced in the Microsoft.SharePoint.Client namespace. The three APIs are targeted for three different types of clients.
1. .net Managed applications – These are used when we have to create console applications or window applications, web applications which are not running inside SharePoint Contex.
2. For Silverlight applications
3. ECMAScript – It is a client object model extension for using with JavaScript or JScript. This is used for creating applications which are hosted inside SharePoint. For example, web part deployed in SharePoint site can use this JavaScript API for accessing SharePoint from browser using JavaScript.
Q. What are the security improvements in SharePoint 2010 ?
In SharePoint 2010 a variety of security methods have been introduced.
Claims-Based Authentication - Claims based authentication is based on identity. and trust.
Code Access Security - in which you can specify your own code access
security (CAS) policy for your web parts.
Sandbox Solutions - Sandbox Solutions which when deployed to the server, SharePoint runs in a special process that has limited permissions.
Cross-Site Scripting - Introduced to prevent Cross - Site Scripting (XSS) attacks.

Q. Whats New with SharePoint WebParts?
A developer can create two types of webparts using Visual Studio 2010.
1. Visual Webparts - Allows you to Drag and Drop the controls from the Toolbox to WebPart Design surface. You can of course write your custom code in the code file. You can also package and deploy your webparts directly to Sharepoint from VS by pressing Clt+F5. Visual studio 2010 also provides you with three different views for developing webparts. The views are split view, design view and Source view(as we have in designer 2007).
Note : The Visual Webpart project Item basically loads a User Control as a WebPart.

2. ASP.Net WebParts -
Where a developer can build up User Interface and logic in a class file. You do not have designer for drag and drop of controls. This webpart inherits from standard ASP.Net webpart. For Deployment we can again use ctrl+f5 to deploy this webpart.

Q. What are the Visual Studio 2010 Tools for SharePoint.
Ans. Visual Studio 2010 includes SharePoint-specific project types and project item types, and includes powerful packaging, deployment, and debugging features that help increase your efficiency as a SharePoint 2010 developer.
Some of the Templates avaiable are :
1.Visual Web Part project template.
2. List defination template.
3. Content Type template.
4. Empty Project template.
5. Event Receiver template.
6. some workflow template.
7. the Site Definition template
and many more....

Q. What are SharePoint Sandboxed soultions ?
SharePoint 2010 provides a new sandboxed environment that enables you to run user solutions without affecting the rest of the SharePoint farm. This environment means that users can upload their own custom solutions without requiring intervention from administrators, and without putting the rest of the farm at risk. This means that the existing sites\pages or components will not be effected by the newly added soultion.
Users can deploy the below four things as sandboxed soultions :
1. WebParts.
2. Event Receivers.
3. List Definations.
4. Workflows.

Q. What are Requirenments for SharePoint 2010.
SharePoint Server 2010 will support only 64 - bit. It will require 64 bit Windows Server 2008 or 64 bit Windows Server 2008 R2. In addition to this, it will require 64 bit version of SQL Server 2008 or 64-bit version of SQL Server 2005.

Q. What is LINQ. How is it used in Sharepoint ?
. LINQ is a feature of the programming languages C# 3.0 and Visual Basic .NET. LINQ allows you to query in an object-oriented way, supports compile-time check, gives you intellisense support in Visual Studio and defines a unified, SQL like syntax to query any data source. But unlike other languages and query syntaxes which vary from one type of data source to another, LINQ can be used to query, in principle, any data source whatsoever. It is commonly used to query objects collections, XML and SQL server data sources.
The LINQ to SharePoint Provider is defined in theMicrosoft.SharePoint.Linq namespace. It translates LINQ queries into Collaborative Application Markup Language (CAML) queries.

Q. What Changes are made in SharePoint 2010 to enforce Referential Integrity?
In SharePoint 2010, Referential Integrity is enforced using two options, available with Look-up columns.
While creating a Look-up column, you can either choose a) Restrict Delete or b) Cascade Delete to define a relationship between the Look-up list and the list containing the look-up Column. Read Details at SharePoint 2010 Referential integrity - Using LookUp Column

Q. Whats Ribbon in SharePoint 2010?
See the Post Ribbon in SharePoint 2010

Q . Whats New in SPALerts ?
In SharePoint 2007, alerts were send only through e-mails, but in SP2010 users can also send an alert to mobile devices as SMS Message. A New property DeliveryChannels is introduced to indicate, whether the alert is delivered as E-mail or as an SMS Message.

Q. What Has Changed with SSP in SharePoint 2010.
In SharePoint 2010 Shared Service Providers (SSP's) are replaced by Service Applications. Services are no longer combined into a SSP. They are running independent as a service application. The service application architecture is now also built into Microsoft SharePoint Foundation 2010, in contrast to the Shared Services Provider (SSP) architecture that was only part of Office SharePoint Server 2007.
A key benefit here is that all services are installed by default and there is no SSP setup.

Friday, November 25, 2011

Explanation Of Cross Domain And Client Access Policy Files For Silverlight


Referred URL

Taking some of the good ideas from Adobe Flash in regards to security policy, Silverlight has implemented a similar security model to block unauthorized cross domain network calls. This plugs a potential security hole where a malicious Silverlight application could run on a page the user is viewing and make API and network calls to domains that the user is not on without his or her knowledge. Microsoft has a quick write-up on some of the security issues this solves here:

Commonly, this issue is usually encountered in Silverlight when you see an exception like this:

An error occurred while trying to make a request to URI "http://localhost/myservice.asmx". This could be due to attempting to access a service in a cross-domain way without a proper cross-domain policy in place, or a policy that is unsuitable for SOAP services.

In order for Silverlight to call a remote resource on a different domain from where the XAP file was served such as a Web Service or RSS feed, the domain where the service or feed resides must grant access to the Silverlight application. The way this is done is using an XML file with the name "clientaccesspolicy.xml" or "crossdomain.xml".

As the above diagram illustrates, when your Silverlight application communicates with the server that served the application, the communication here is allowed because this is on the same domain from where your app was served. But when your Silverlight application attempts to communicate with a 3rd party remote server, a policy must exist (which is defined in either the "clientaccesspolicy.xml" or "crossdomain.xml" file) that allows this communication. If not policy exists on the domain different from the domain from where your Silverlight app was served, the communication is not allowed (hence the name "cross domain script attacks" because it is communication a-"cross" domains).

Difference between Cross Domain and Client Access Policy files

"crossdomain.xml" was created originally for use with Flash applications. But Silverlight also supports this file. "clientaccesspolicy.xml" is specific to Silverlight and allows you to configure specific access rules for HTTP/HTTPS communication and allowable domains.

To enable communication to a server for a specific Silverlight application, both files do not need to be present. You can choose either one depending on your preference but at least one of the files must be there with the correct rules configured. If you want to enable access for both Silverlight and Flash applications, then you might consider just having a "crossdomain.xml" file (or you could still have both this case).

Both the Cross Domain and the Client Access Policy files are XML but have different elements and format.

Example of Client Access Policy file

Client Access Policy files give you more granular controls over traffic types, access to resources, and specific HTTP header information. The following example will allow any and all request to this web server from Silverlight:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<!-- Silverlight 3 or higher requires the http-request-headers attribute. -->
<allow-from http-request-headers="*">
<domain uri="http://*" />
<domain uri="https://*" />
<resource path="/" include-subpaths="true"/>

You can specify that only a specific file can be accessed. For instance, here we only allow HTTP traffic from any domain and we only allow these requests to serve the "myfile.xml" file:

<allow-from http-request-headers="*">
<domain uri="http://*" />
<resource path="myfile.xml" include-subpaths="false" />

Here we only allow the domains and access:

<allow-from http-request-headers="*">
<domain uri="" />
<domain uri="" />
<resource path="/" include-subpaths="true" />

This example shows how to use the wildcard (*) to allow any sub-domain of a specific domain access. Here we are allowing all requests from any sub-domain of access:

<allow-from http-request-headers="*">
<domain uri="http://*" />
<resource path="/" include-subpaths="true" />

Example of Cross Domain file

The following example will allow any and all requests to this web server from Flash or Silverlight:

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<!DOCTYPE cross-domain-policy
<allow-access-from domain="*" />

Technically, this completely eliminates any security from the cross domain policy so although this is really convenient for development purposes, it should probably not be used in production in most cases.

If you wanted to only allow certain domains to access the system, your file could be configured like this:

<!DOCTYPE cross-domain-policy 
<allow-access-from domain="" />
<allow-access-from domain="" />

If you wanted to block all access to your server from any Silverlight or Flash application, you could use this code:

<!DOCTYPE cross-domain-policy 

Also note, you can use the wildcard (*) character to handle the situation of multiple sub-domains on a specific domain. For instance, this file shows how to allow all sub-domains from to communicate with the server:

<!DOCTYPE cross-domain-policy 
<allow-access-from domain="*"/>

Where do I put the crossdomain.xml or clientaccesspolicy.xml file?

The crossdomain.xml or clientaccesspolicy.xml MUST be located at the root of your web server. If you put the file(s) in a sub-directory where your website files might be, they don’t count and won’t work. The file(s) need to be in the root of your web server so if your domain is, then the file(s) should be located or respectively.

What is the order that Silverlight requests these files?

When a Silverlight app communicates to a remote server, it first requests the "clientaccesspolicy.xml" file and then if that is not found, it falls back on the "crossdomain.xml" file to check if it exists. If neither does, communication will fail if this request is to a different domain than the one from which the Silverlight app was served from.

A great diagram of the process to request the file is available at:

It is a bit confusing at first thought because Silverlight is actually the one that deciphers the policy even though the policy is set and maintained at the web server where the resources that are being requested reside. Once you get over that mental hurdle, the rest is pretty easy to understand.

Domains and sub-domains are different

Also note that when we say "domain" this does not include sub domains. To a Silverlight app, the domains "" and "" are completely different. They must both be allowed separately. Sub-domains on a specific domain are treated as different domains to cross domain policies.

HTTP and HTTPS are different

HTTP and HTTPS are treated as separate types of requests and must be specifically allowed. Even after doing this, you may still have problems in your Silverlight app if you are running HTTPS and try to make an HTTP call or vice versa so watch out for cross SSL communication (this is kind of a separate issue from the cross domain security issues but worth noting here).

Wednesday, November 16, 2011

Around the world on 14 scholarships
You have more reasons to cheer up as studying abroad can now be not that expensive. If you are willing to travel abroad for higher education or pursue your postdoctoral research, a number of foreign universities are keen on offering various scholarships. Along with a complete tuition fee waiver, a scholarship-holder is also awarded grants for travel and stay. In some cases, it also includes health insurance and other personal expenses. However, a little planning is recommended.
There is a tough competition for such scholarships as thousands of aspirants try their luck every day to avail of them. You should start early with your research. Read very carefully the instructions regarding the scholarship you opt for, especially the eligibility criteria as it differs from course to course. Moreover, all institutes have their own plans so application time may vary.
Also note that there is a difference between a bursary and a scholarship as the former is provided on the basis of financial need of an applicant while the latter is based on academic excellence. Scholarships are also categorised as merit-based, need-based, institutional-based, general and sociological. Experts recommend that a student should ideally apply for more than one scholarship at a time to increase chances of at least one of them working out.
So, choose your options with caution and fulfill your dream of being a part of the world’s best institutions.
SMART 2012 Scholars Programme
The Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology (SMART) provides fellowships to PhD graduates interested in conducting research in four different Interdisciplinary Research Groups (IRGs).
Biosystems and Micromechanics
Center for Environmental Sensing and Modeling
Future Urban Mobility
Infectious Diseases
Fellowship covers the following:
The recipient is provided an annual salary of up to 85,000 Singapore dollars (Rs. 3,245, 000), a research grant of up to 40,000 Singapore dollars (Rs. 1, 527, 000), and a travel allowance of up to 5,000 Singapore dollars (Rs. 191, 000).
Number of Scholarships: 4
One year beginning September, 2011
Scholarship is awarded to those who have less than three years postdoctoral experience and have received their doctoral degree by September 1, 2012.
Selection criteria: The applicant would be judged on the basis of his/her Curriculum Vitae, publications and an application form consisting of a description of the proposed research project, reason for choosing SMART and a brief on the career goals and future plans.
Application deadline: December
Hong Kong PhD Fellowship Scheme
Synopsis: The Hong Kong PhD Fellowship Scheme (HKPFS), established by the Hong Kong Research Grants Council (RGC) in 2009, calls for best students from around the world to pursue full-time doctoral studies in five different schools (31 subjects) and three interdisciplinary programmes.
School of Science
School of Engineering
School of Business and Management
School of Humanities and Social Science
Atmospheric Environmental Science
Marine Environmental Science
The fellowship covers the following:
Provides the awardee with a monthly stipend of 20,000 Hong Kong dollars (Rs. 120,000) and a conference travel allowance of 10,000 Hong Kong dollars (Rs. 60,000) per year for a maximum period of three years.
Number of Scholarships: 135
Duration: Three years if a relevant research Master’s degree is earned prior to entering the programme or four years with a first degree.
Eligibility: Students who are seeking admission as new full-time PhD research candidates in government-funded institutions in Hong Kong irrespective of their country of origin and ethnic background are eligible for the fellowship.
Selection criteria: As PhD programmes require a combination of coursework and independent research, review panels will consider academic excellence on a priority followed by research ability and potential, communication and interpersonal skills, and leadership abilities and societal responsibility.
Felix Scholarship
The Felix Scholarship is provided to underprivileged students, who get an opportunity to further their PG education at either of the universities of Oxford, Reading and Lodon’s School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS).
All subjects offered by the participating universities, except medicine.
The fellowship covers the following: 100 percent of university and college fees, a grant for living expenses, and flight (India-UK or UK-India) at the start and end of your course.
Number of Scholarships:
20 by each university
Up to 3 years depending on eligibility
Candidates must be under 30 years of age on 31 January 2011.
They must demonstrate financial need. They must also possess at least a first-class Honours Degree from a University or comparable institution.
Candidates are expected by the Trust to return to work in their home country following their study.
Selection criteria: The Scholarship is awarded on the basis of outstanding academic merit and financial need. The chosen university draws up a shortlist of candidates and sends it to the Selection Committee which in turn calls individuals for an interview.
Application deadline: The application deadline is different for all the universities and they are as follow.
Oxford: January 6, 2012 for Medical Sciences and Philosophy, January 20, 2012 for all other subjects
Reading: February 10, 2012
SOAS: January 31, 2012
International Fellowships Program (IFP)
Scholarships under International Fellowships Program are offered for postgraduate study through a grant from the Ford Foundation in 12 grant-making areas.
Arts & Culture, Civil Society, Community Development, Finance and Economic Security, Education and Scholarship, Environment and Development, Governance, Human Rights, Media, Religion, Society and Culture, Public Health and Workforce Development.
The fellowship covers the following:
A fellowship award amount, determined by IFP, covering the cost of the study plan
Assistance in making all logistical arrangements related to visas, travel and insurance
Short-term pre-fellowship (6 to 9-month) training, including language study and courses in research and computer skills, after selection
One round trip on air to the point of destination and return to India.
Duration: Determined as part of the placement process.
Indian nationals currently residing and working in the States of Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Jammu & Kashmir, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh or Uttarakhand.
Candidate should hold a Bachelor’s or a Master’s degree from a recognised Indian university with at least 55% marks. Those who already have postgraduate degrees or equivalent will be given lower preference.
He should have at least three years’ full-time work experience in the proposed area of study along with experience in leadership and community service or related activities.
Meet necessary admission requirements and language proficiency standards of the foreign or Indian university.
Selection criteria:
Fellows are chosen on the basis of their leadership potential, commitment to community and academic achievements. The candidates have to present a plan specifying how they will apply their studies to social problems in their own countries which, along with written applications, is judged by a selection panel.
Application deadline: January 2012
Commonwealth Scholarship 2012
Synopsis: Union Ministry of Human Resource Development nominates Indian students for award of this scholarship every year for higher studies, research and specialized training in various subjects in the United Kingdom.
The Award:
Six months of clinical training in either of Cancer Research, Cardiology, Gynaecology, Medicine, Dentistry, Orthopaedics, Neurology, ENTOne-year Master’s/equivalent degree or three-year doctoral degree in either of Engineering and Technology, Science (Pure and Applied), Agriculture, Humanities and Social Sciences.
The fellowship covers the following:
Student concessionary or other approved airfare to the UK and return on expiry of the scholarship
Approved tuition and examination fees.
Personal maintenance allowance at the rate of 882 Euros per month
Grant towards the expenses of preparing a thesis or dissertation, where applicable; initial arrival allowance, incorporating in initial clothing grant for scholars from tropical countries; grant for expenses for approved travel within the UK or overseas; grant towards fieldwork costs for those Scholars undertaking doctoral studies for whom a case has been made for fieldwork outside the UK.A paid mid-term fare to their home country for Scholars on three years doctoral awards.
For married Scholars selected by the Commission for awards exceeding 18 months, a marriage allowance of 220 euros per month payable provided that the husband and wife are residing together at the same address in the UK. Number of Scholarships: Up to 60 nominations containing maximum 25 for doctoral studies are sent by the ministry to Commonwealth Scholarship Commission for final selection.
Six months for clinical training
One year for Master’s course
Three years for PhD course
The candidate should not be more than 40 years of age as on October 12, 2011
He should have completed tertiary education in English medium. Those whose native language is not English will be required to provide evidence of sufficient competency in the language.
He should hold a Bachelor’s degree or Master’s degree from a recognised university with at least 60% marks in case of Humanities and Social Science while 65% in Medical, Engineering and Technology, Science and Agriculture.
For PG scholarship in Business and/or Management, the candidate must have taken Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT).
For scholarship in Economics and related subjects, he should have passed Graduate Record Examination (GRE)
For clinical training, the candidate must have qualified MBBS/BDS between October 1, 2002 and September 30, 2007
Applicants in Medicine and Dentistry should be eligible for registration with the General Medical Council or the General Dental Council
Selection criteria: Applicant has to give one page academic justification for pursuing the course in UK. In addition, he has to appear for IELTS test between October 1, 2011 and March 6, 2012
Application deadline: October 7, 2011 for downloading application form October 12, 2011 for receiving completed application in the Ministry by post/hand
CCAPS Pre-Doctoral Dissertation Fellowship
Synopsis: The Strauss Center’s Climate Change and African Political Stability (CCAPS) fellowship programme aims at development of researchers and thought leaders on the topic of climate change and political stability in Africa. It is offered at the University of Texas at Austin.
Research areas:
Investigate where and how climate change poses threats to stability in Africa
Identify strategies to support accountable and effective governance in Africa
Evaluate the effectiveness of international aid to help African societies adapt to climate change.
The fellowship covers the following: A nine-month stipend of 24,000 dollars and one round-trip airline ticket.
Duration: One-year
Eligibility: Applicants must be registered in a PhD programme in any discipline including both the social and natural sciences. They so not have to be attending a US university or have US citizenship to apply. Preference will be given to those working on topics related to climate change, political stability, and security in Africa.
Application deadline: February 15, 2012
Cambridge University Research Career Development Fellowships
Synopsis: The University of Cambridge provides these fellowships at its Sainsbury Laboratory, giving an opportunity to junior investigators to develop their own research programme and become creative leaders in the field of plant science.
The fellowship covers the following: Successful candidates will receive an initial three years of funding, with extension for a further two years contingent on a successful scientific review, and will hold an appointment with the University of Cambridge. Funds include full salary, benefits and 40,000 pounds per annum of unrestricted research support.
Duration: Five-years
Eligibility: Applicants, of any nationality, should have between 3 and 6 years of postdoctoral experience in a field related to the overall scientific focus of the laboratory in plant development and its computational modelling. They should be able to provide strong evidence of their potential to develop independent research programmes.
Application deadline: Not fixed. Applications are peer reviewed at least three times annually.
Guest Scholarship Program for PhD and post-doctoral studies in Sweden
Synopsis: The programme provides PhD students and researchers with an opportunity to conduct a study or research visit to a Swedish university within all fields of study.
No. of scholarships: 50
The fellowship covers the following: The scholarship amounts to 12,000 Swedish Krona (Rs. 85,554) per month for PhD students and 15,000 Swedish Krona (Rs. 106,942) for postdoctoral researchers. Scholarship holders will receive travel support of 10,000 Swedish Krona (Rs. 71, 295) in lump-sum. They are also insured by the Swedish State Group Insurance against illness and accident during the scholarship period (no grants will be given for family members of the holder).
Duration: 6, 12 or 18 months
Candidates, belonging to any age group, opting for PhD- level scholarship must be enrolled in ongoing PhD studies at home university while those for post-doctoral level must be holder of a PhD degree, preferably from 2006 or later.
The candidate must have not lived in Sweden for two years or more when the scholarship period is due to begin.
He must not have a Swedish permanent residence permit.
He must not have a Swedish work permit.
He must not be an EU citizen.
ICRAR Postgraduate Scholarship
Synopsis: International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR) provides this scholarship to support PhD research in radio astronomy and radio astronomy engineering at the Curtin University node of ICRAR, based in Perth, Western Australia.
Research areas:
Global signature Epoch of Re-ionization science and instrument development
Low frequency phased array development for the Square Kilometre Array (SKA)
Fast radio transients science and engineering (for example, development and use of high speed digital instrumentation
Pulsar science and instrumentation development; and
Galactic X-ray binary systems
The fellowship covers the following: The scholarship will provide a living allowance of 25,000 dollars per annum and tuition fees for the duration of the course up to a maximum period of 3.5 years. A relocation allowance is available and support for travel is also available.
No. of Scholarships: One
Duration: 3 years extendable up to 6 months
Eligibility: The applicants, preferably engineer or physicist, must have completed four years of higher education studies with good marks and hold or expect to obtain First Class Honours or equivalent results. They should be eligible for admission to a higher degree by research at Curtin University and have interest in antennas, RF systems and DSP, with the emphasis between topics being adjustable.
International PhD Projects Programme (MPD) at University of Warsaw
Synopsis: The scholarship is provided by the University of Warsaw, Poland in the field of Fundamental Problems of Quantum Gravity and Quantum Field Theory in support with the Foundation for Polish Science and co-financed by the European Union within the European Regional Development Fund.
The fellowship covers the following: The scholarship holder is provided with 3500 Polish Zloty (Rs. 53,006) during stays in Poland and 5000 Polish Zloty (Rs. 75, 722) if it is outside Poland. He would receive supervision by tutors from the University of Warsaw, the University of Wrocław and the Polish Academy of Sciences Center for Theoretical Physics in collaboration with foreign partners. Long-term visits in partner institutions will also be organised.
Duration: 4 years
Eligibility: The candidate must be a Postgraduate in domains of Physics, technical Physics or Mathematics. His MSc diploma must be with the grade “Very Good” (or equivalent). He should be fluent in English language. Applicants who successfully passed an entry examination to a PhD programme in the mentioned domains during last two years and completed no more than one year of the studies may also apply.
International Postgraduate Research Scholarship (IPRS) in Australia
Synopsis: International Postgraduate Research Scholarships are funded by the Australian Government to encourage exceptional students to undertake research higher degrees in Australia.
The fellowship covers the following: The candidate will receive grants for full tuition fees and health-cover for both him and his dependents. He may also be considered for an Australian Postgraduate Award living allowance scholarship. The scholarship will be tax-free if the candidate is studying full-time.
Duration: Depending on the course opted
Eligibility: The candidate must be applying to study a PhD, Master’s by research, or professional doctorate and have a minimum first class Honours or equivalent. He or she should not have previously held an Australian Government-funded research scholarship for more than 6 months. The scholarship will be tax-free if you’re studying full-time. He must not hold another scholarship worth more than 75 percent of the IPRS.
Selection criteria: Fellows are called in the month of December and if their applications are successful, they have to accept the fellowship within three weeks. The research then should be initiated by them in the first month of the next year.
Westminster International Scholarships
Synopsis: The scholarship award is provided to candidates from developing countries to study a full-time Master’s degree at the University of Forward Thinking at Westminister.
The fellowship covers the following: The scholarship-holder will get full tuition fee waivers, accommodation, living expenses and flights to and from London.
Duration: Depending on the course opted
Eligibility: The candidate must be an international student from a developing country and hold an offer for a full-time Master’s degree. Particular preference will be given to those who can demonstrate how the knowledge acquired from studies will aid the development of their own country.
Endeavour Awards
Synopsis: Endeavour Awards is the Australian Government’s merit-based scholarship programme administered by the Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations (DEEWR) providing opportunities to students to undertake postgraduate study, research and professional development or PhD in any field of study in the country.
The fellowship covers the following: The award-holder will receive 23,500 dollars as award value consisting of 4500 dollars as travel allowance, 4000 dollars as establishment allowance, 2500 dollars as monthly stipend up to 6 months and health and travel insurance coverage for full period of award.
Up to 2 years for a Master’s and up to 4 years for a PhD
Candidates must be aged 18 years minimum at the commencement of their Award. There is no maximum age limit.
Candidates must not hold dual citizenship with Australia.
They must be enrolled in a Master’s or PhD course in a participating country or have had their PhD conferred and received their final results prior to the commencement of their Award.
Those applying for Master’s must have completed an undergraduate degree at the time of application, demonstrating high academic achievement.
Applicants must be nominated by their host organisation and provide a completed nomination form it with their application.
Selection criteria: The candidate will be judged on his academic achievement so far in the chosen field of study, He would have to submit a proposal that is relevant to the needs and interests of the applicant’s home and host country, and evidence of participation in community service outside of the applicant’s regular studies and/or employment duties.
Fulbright-Nehru-CII Fellowships for Leadership in Management at the US
Synopsis: The Fulbright-Nehru-CII Fellowships for Leadership in Management are given to Indian business managers jointly by the United States-India Educational Foundation (USIEF) and the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII). The programme is attended at the Carnegie Mellon University’s Tepper School of Business, located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.
The fellowship covers the following: The scholarship holder will receive J-1 visa support, round-trip economy class air ticket between the executive’s home town/city of work in India and Pittsburgh, total tuition fees, maintenance allowance in the US, settling-in allowance and accident and sickness coverage as per the US Government guidelines.
The applicant should have a graduate degree and at least five years of managerial experience in an industry.
He should preferably be 45 years of age or under and in good health.
He should be present in India at the time of submitting the application and interview and if not, the authorities should be informed.
The applicant must not be residing in the US or must not have applied for or holding permanent residence (green card) in the country.
He should not have been in the US during the past three years on a teaching, research, study or professional assignment for a continuous period of three months or more, at the time of submitting the application or during the application cycle (November 2011 to May 2012).
The applicant will have to produce his employer’s undertaking to bear 50 percent of the total cost i.e 18,400 dollars.

Friday, November 4, 2011

SharePoint Silverlight Client Object Model


Referred URL

In this article we will go through Silverlight Client Object Model. If you want to know the other client object model types go here.ECMAScript and Managed client object models.
To communicate with the SharePoint server in Silverlight context we need to give two client SharePoint DLL references to the silver light project.

DLL's Needed:

Microsoft.SharePoint.Client.Silverlight.dll Microsoft.SharePoint.Client.Silverlight.Runtime.dll.

They can be found at

C:\Program Files\Common Files\microsoft shared\Web Server Extensions\14\TEMPLATE\LAYOUTS\ClientBin.

  1. Open Visual Studio 2010.
  2. File -> New -> Project -> Visual C# -> Silverlight -> Select Silverlight Application project template as shown below.

  3. Give some name to the project. In my example, I have given some meaningful name like "SP2010Silverlight_HelloWorld" and create the project.
  4. Now, you see the below screen.

  5. What this meaning is "Do you want to create an ASP.NET web site and host the XAP file generated to the web site". For our example, it's really not needed. But, there is no problem by using that.
  6. Now next step is getting the SharePoint Silverlight Client Dll's reference to our project. So, for this get the SharePoint dll's to the client machine [Where we created project] and paste the DLL's in some safe location. I copied them to C:\SP2010_ClientDLL\.
  7. Now, go to Visual Studio 2010 project right click on project -> select References and browse to location where client dll's copied and select both dll's and hit ok as shown in below figure.

  8. After you added all references the references folder should look like this.
  9. Now we are ready with all prerequisites and part left is with writing code. I will show you simple code on how to write the code for getting web site title and description using Silverlight Client OM.
  10. Before start coding, we need to add reference to the namespace in page by declaring using keyword as shown below.

    using Microsoft.SharePoint.Client; 

  11. This is the code to get data from a SharePoint server, in this example we are retrieving Title and Description of a web site.

It is necessary to add some code in the StartUp event handler to initialize the Microsoft.SharePoint.Client.ApplicationContext with the same initialization parameters and the synchronization context for the current thread (the UI thread). This way, it is also possible to pass initialization parameters from the page to the Silverlight application.

private void Application_Startup(object sender, StartupEventArgs e)
this.RootVisual = new MainPage();
// Initialize the ApplicationContext
ApplicationContext.Init(e.InitParams, System.Threading.

Add Name Space in Project

using Microsoft.SharePoint.Client;

Add the following four private variables:

private ClientContext _context;

Now, it is necessary to add code to execute the following tasks:
1. Connect to the SharePoint server using the Connect method.
2. Connect to the lists available in the SharePoint server using the ConnectLists method.
3. Retrieve data from the ProjectsList2010 list, GetListData method.
4. Load all the available items for the ProjectsList2010 list, LoadItems method.
5. Store a local variable in a list of project instances, one for each item in the ProjectsList2010 list, fill its properties, and then bind the results list to the dataGridProjects DataGrid to display the retrieved data, using the ShowItems method.

private void LayoutRoot_Loaded(Object sender, EventArgs args)
_context = new SP.ClientContext
_context = new SP.ClientContext("http://xpsgaston");
//_context.Load(_context.Web, website => website.Title);
_context.ExecuteQueryAsync(OnConnectSucceeded, null);

private void OnConnectSucceeded(Object sender, SP.ClientRequestSucceededEventArgs args)
// This callback isn't called on the UI thread


Second ASync Thread
private void ConnectLists()



Microsoft Silverlight 4 Books